SOLUTION: ACCT 403 SEU What Is ANOVA & Regression Analysis and Its Use in Research Questions

College of Administrative and Financial Sciences
Assignment 2
Deadline: (end of week 6) 31 /10/ 2020 @ 23:59
Course Name: Accounting Research & Practice Student’s Name:
Course Code: ACCT 403
Student’s ID Number:
Semester: I
CRN:
Academic Year: 1441/1442 H
For Instructor’s Use only
Instructor’s Name:
Students’ Grade: …… /5
Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low
Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY
• The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via
allocated folder.
• Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.
• Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be
reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover
page.
• Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.
• Late submission will NOT be accepted.
• Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students
or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No
exceptions.
• All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced)
font. No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered
plagiarism).
• Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.
Assignment Question(s):
Q1.
(Marks. 5)
Differentiate between Quantitative vs. Qualitative research. Give examples from
the articles you have referred in assignment 1 (1.5 Points)
Q2. a. From the the articles you referred in assignment 1 explain one of the quantitative
analysis used by the any author.
b. Explain, what is ANOVA and Regression Analysis and its use in research. (1.5 Points)
Q3. Bring out the steps in Conducting Experiments and their concerned design (1 Mark)
Q4. Explain interview methods and the areas of concern in conducting them (1
Mark)
College of Administrative and Financial Sciences
Assignment 1
Deadline: (end of week 6) 10 /10/ 2020 @ 23:59
Course Name: Accounting Research & Practice Student’s Name: Taima Baghbara
Course Code: ACCT 403
Student’s ID Number: 160128597
Semester: I
CRN: 10661
Academic Year: 1441/1442 H
For Instructor’s Use only
Instructor’s Name:
Students’ Grade: …… /5
Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low
nstructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY
• The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated
folder.
• Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.
• Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced for
poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.
• Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.
• Late submission will NOT be accepted.
• Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other
resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions.
• All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No
pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism).
• Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.
Assignment Question(s):
(Marks. 5)
Q1 Activity: (2 Marks)
1a. Visit Saudi Digital Library using your student ID/ You can also search from Google and Choose at least
5 research articles on accounting in which you are interested and would like to investigate. You might have
observed that every article starts with an Abstract, explain in your words what is an abstract and how does
it help other researchers.
Answer:
An abstract is basically a concise summary in articles written, containing very crucial points about the
article itself. Additionally, they give a platform of desire to the professionals to know what is discussed in
the article. Abstract help other researchers to identify the main points on the paper so fast, identify the
important points and also make them ready to understand the information, arguments and explanation in the
article.
1b. Write the title and author of each article and summarize the finding of each author in all the 5 articles
and write a critical comment on them.
Answer:
A) Accounting Research: A Practical Guide
Authors: Niamh M.Brennan
This article aids accounting students in research projects and reports on accounting topics. The article is
mainly helpful to undergraduate students and also the master level. Furthermore, it elaborates important
topics such putting down, and analyzing the data on the topics. Method of accounting research such as the
laboratory experiments and descriptive research and also discussed on the book. Statistical test that are used
in Accounting in Research are also listed and explained in the article. The article basically guides the
student to vividly make how Accounting Research are basically conducted. Students get to know also how
to get good research topics based on accounting topics when assigned such kind of task. Empirical design on
Accounting are listed on the book and explained on how tackle them. In addition, dissertation titles and
friction in accounting theory is talked about on the article.

A critical comment of the Article is that it reviews the process of financial accounting, valuation and
expenses when it comes the equity capital.
B) The Real Exchange Rate, Innovation and productivity in Accounting
Author: Laura Alfaro, Alejandro Cunat, Harald Fadinger and Yanping
This article in summary access the feedback when the real exchange rate are altered in the manufacturing
firms using the detailed firm levels from other countries. Some of the facts identified include the swift
growth when it comes to cash flow, total factor productivity and high chances to interconnect in export and
R&D. Crucial effects are never accessed for companies from industrialized economies and negative impacts
for companies in the upcoming financial resources which tend to be more addition of content when it comes
to the imports and less export intensive. This facts have brought rise to construction of dynamic model
where real devaluation bring rise to expenses on importing intermediate though raising the profitability and
demand to interconnect on exports and R&D. Additionally they break down the outcome of the RER
altering on the manufacturing growth into these channel and elaborate the quality of being heterogeneous on
the outcome of the RER alteration when it comes to comparison in the financial constraints, import and
export density. Estimation are made and elaboration of various mechanism by giving exchange rates. Lastly,
outcome on the TFP growth when located at different areas are usually non-linear

A critical comment on the article is that they tend to point out outcomes on real exchange rates
financially which in turn inspects the company productivity all over the country.
C) A preliminary Framework for Products Impact-Weighted Account
Author; Katie Trinh, Robert Zochowski, George Serafaim
Since there is an important development when it comes to conservation of performance socially and
environmental organization, impact services tend to slugger in the market due to the metrics. Basically, from
this article they give a framework conservation of product effect in the financial terms. This Framework is
turn used in firm that compete and the entities in various areas of the economy portray the realization of the
product measured and the framework actions. Not only do they show the value of the financial statement
analyzed.

Framework on this article grabs quality, accessibility, recycling life and optionally give room for
techniques that are used in various firms.
D) Corporate Sustainability: A strategy?
Author: Loannis Loannou and George Serafaim
Basically, they investigate techniques of capturing the performance of different companies. It is noticed that
in many firms, endurable application meets in these companies, showing that unfurl as regular practices.
Nevertheless, the degree of intersection among different firms is involved with approval of sustainability
with the marketers of the firms and the crucial social and environmental matters. There is comparison of
behavior that are sustainable where the companies meet a term identified as common practices. In
conclusion they come up with proofs on the factors of sustaining a good period for corporate strategy and
techniques that are common.
⚫ A crucial comment on this article is it aids firms to come up with a comparable measure in a period
of time.
E) Financing the Response to climate Change: The pricing and ownership of Green Bonds
Author: Malcolm Baker, Daniel Bergstresser, George Serafeim and Jeffery Wurgler
Green Bonds operate on environmental purposes. After thoroughly looking into the green bond market and
US corporate, ownership and costing techniques by use of framework that integrate asset non quantified
damages utility. It is notice that these bonds are handled at premium and other normal bonds. Additionally,
it is confirmed that that green bonds are handled closely as compared to ordinary bonding despite them
being safe.

A crucial comment on this article is that Green Bonds are basically purposely used for example to
renew energy since they are friendly to the environment
1c. Develop one Question/ Topic of your own based on all the comment you made from the summary
above.
Answer:
How has Accounting affected distribution of equity and debt in companies in the economy of our country?
2. Research proposals includes: 1. Title, 2. Abstract, 3. Issues, 4. Objectives, 5. Literature, 6.
Method, 7. Benefits.
Write down a research proposal on the question developed in Q1. (1.5 Marks)
Title of research
Accounting components affecting distribution of equity and debt on firm economies in our country
Abstract
This paper investigates the factors in accounting bringing rise to distribution of equity and debt on firm
economies within the country. Some of the factors discussed include profitability, earnings per share and
firm size. Additionally, tangibility and interest rate are considered as factors and evaluated on the paper
also. The interaction in growth and leverage is elaborated in a non-uniform way. When it comes to finance
decisions, cost is highly considered than maintaining the firm
Issues
The irrelevancy of capital structure in accountancy within a firm.
Objectives
The purpose of this research is to find out how accounting affected distribution of equity and debt in
companies in the economy of our country?
Literature
Trade off theory, a theory that was raised from Myers explains the vital’ decisions on capital structure.
Tangibility being a factor involves studying of tangible assets where companies are allowed are authorized
to have a higher tangible asset that total assets used in collateral. Basically, this firms are helped by the
collateral asset to ask for more since this lender will be bold to involve themselves in these risky projects.
Nevertheless, profitability is termed by Earning before Interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization on the
total assets. The theory used shows that companies that gain high profits tend to ask for more so as to have
shield benefits. Decisions that this firms come up with when it comes to capital structure are basically based
on the pecking theory. Growth of the firm is highly dependent on the market value and vice versa.
Furthermore, market timing theory encourages firm growth preferences when capital structure is
overvalued. Firm size on the other hand can be elaborated using total assets and sales. It is highly
encouraged for on to observe the interconnection between the size and leverage ratio. Lastly the interest rate
tends to be low since they cost less than equity. An example is if the Company tend to produce good
performance the manager gives new equity since the stock prices are misread.
Methodology
Data collection is conducted in a way where the financial data are written down in stock markets. They are
later analyzed by pool regression which involves studying panel data that is used to put down independent
variables and not random when it comes in error term. On the other hand, fixed effect model involves
observing of time invariant whereby dummies are used to come up with interception.
Benefits of proposal
First and foremost, it is crucial to inspect the techniques used internally especially in the accounting
community for bringing up and disseminating ideas. We can see that a lot of companies tend to pick capital
structure by mingling and developing a close relation with financial attributes such as size, growth and rates
of interest as explained thus being a benefit to them and their community also. It is thus noted that this firms
also grow and benefits economically in terms of development and global completeness, factors that tend to
be worth in terms of investments and understanding the company.
3. Data collection depends upon the choice of research method adopted like: 1. The research
question, 2. Data access and 3. What the researcher wants to do.
Develop at least 10 questions on the objectives you created in your proposal to collect data/
Survey. (1Mark)
Answer:
1. How has profitability as a factor affected the capital structure in firms within the country?
2. Are taxes and bankruptcy consistent to capital market?
3. What is the role of the manager when it comes to debt holders and stake holders in the company?
4. List down theories that visualizes how company prioritize financial deals in their company.
5. Briefly explain how data is analyzed by pool regression
6. Can capital structure variation have defined in one single theory?
7. How do you define Firm size in two definition?
8. Which theory explains more distribution of equity and debt on firm economies in our country?
9. How do firm come up with agreement on capital structure?
10. What can a firm be profitable and able to make repayments on debt?
4. The trade-off between reliability and construct validity has been referred to between
internal/external validity. Explain them. (0.5 Marks)
Answer:
In order for one to recognize whether the results are reliable and relevant the concept of internal and
external validity is brought up. External validity focus mainly on how the finding are easily relate able the
world today whereas Internal validity on how a particular research is carried out and managed. Additional
Internal validity shows that a particular study makes it possible to remove other proxy evaluation when it
comes to findings. Internal Validity produces a platform for one to bold when it comes to their research and
findings. They focus on the exact and bold methods of research. Internal Validity in terms of tradeoffs
evolves at the expenses of External validity and the other way round. Attributes that improve internal
validity include random selection, study protocol, randomization, blinding and experimental manipulation.
On the other hand, those that threaten are diffusion, confounding and attrition. External Validity explains
how general applicable this finding are. Outcomes in External Validity are applicable in practical
experiences and the outcome can be converted into another context. Factors that better the external validity
include replicate, trying field experiment, inclusion and exclusion criteria and reprocessing. Those that
threaten include selection bias, pre and post test effects and sample features. Lastly both tend to be similar
when constructing a study and when the study has definition.
Reference
American Accounting Association, Committee on Concepts and Standards for External Financial
Reports. 1977. Statement on Accounting Theory and Theory Acceptance. Sarasota, Fl:
AAA.
Demski, J.S. and D.E.M. Sappington. 1989. Hierarchical structure and responsibility accounting.
Journal of Accounting Research 27 (Spring): 40-58

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