SOLUTION: Binghamton Do We only Humanize Animals when It Is Convenient for Us Discussion

• Define and explain what ethics are, and the different
ethical theories related to how we interact with animals
• Identify important people in the discussion of these
ethical theories
Ethics and Other Animals
• What are “ethics”?

Philosophy of __________
Questioning “right” vs. “wrong”
• Specific to animal ethical

____________of other animals
Debated for thousands of years
Are other animals worthy of moral
Why Deny Moral Consideration?
• __________ inferiority

Humans were made in the image of
Animals have no souls
Animals are inferior, here merely for
our use
• ___________ inferiority

Animals lack, or we deny that they

Animal Ethical Theories
• Indirect
• Direct but Unequal
• Moral Equality
• Indirect = no concern with the harm done to the animals
themselves. Concern lies with how this harm might impact
• Believe….
• Animals lack ___________
• Animals are here for us to use
• ___________consideration given to the animals themselves
Indirect: Why Would We Be Concerned?
The main reasons to treat animals with basic respect are not for the
animal’s sake, but because…
1. We must not harm another person’s ___________
2. We must not ________ people who love animals
3. Cruelty to animals leads to cruelty to other _________
_________ (384-332 BCE)
• Natural ___________
• “Great Chain of Being”
• “Progression of Perfection”
• Plants → Animals → Humans
• Animals are here to be
used by humans
St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)
• Christian philosopher
• Worth and concern for beings based
on their ability for _______ thought
and to ________ their own actions
• Animals are incapable of this
• Humans direct the animal’s actions
• Animals become tools to use
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
• Kantian theories
• Can feel ______, but not _________
• Serve as a means to an end for
• Promote good ________ behaviors
• Cruelty leads to more cruelty
Direct But Unequal
• Direct moral status = wrong to
harm an animal for the animal’s
own sake

Acknowledge they are sentient and
can _______
Deserve some moral consideration
• Unequal = _______ moral
consideration than humans
• Why are humans higher?

Animals do not display moral
Direct But Unequal
• _______ people tend to
believe in this type of
ethical theory
• Animal __________
• Can use animals, but
must care for them
Moral Equality
• Animals and humans have _______ moral status
• Acknowledges _____________ between humans and other

Denies the idea of human exceptionalism
End the use of animals by humans
• Animal ______-focused

Peter Singer
Tom Regan
Gary Francione
Animal Welfare
Sarah Richardson
ANSC 305: Human-Animal
• Define and understand the difference between animal welfare
and animal rights
• Understand the development and use of the Five Freedoms
and Five Domains model when considering animal welfare
• Be able to consider a quality of life scenario for animals as we
consider welfare in a variety of situations
Rights vs. Welfare
• Animal _________
• Can use animals for our benefit (food, pets, entertainment, research, etc.)
• Avoid unnecessary _____ and _________
• Consider physical and behavioral needs
• Animal ________
• End the use of animals for human benefit

No pets, food animals, wildlife conservation, therapy work, etc.
• Remove __________ status of animals

Domesticated animals → extinct, leave wild animals alone
How to Assess Animal Welfare
• Can be difficult (can’t talk to the animals)
• Two schools of thoughts, animals coping with their;
• Environment
• Feelings
Coping with their ________
• ___________, in the moment

Responses may not be in the animal’s longterm benefit
• Tends to focus on ________ experiences
the animal is dealing with
• Difficult to quantify, subjective

May be closer to ___________
Coping with their _____________
• __________, considers many
• Examines the animal’s
physiology, behavior,
production, reproduction, etc.
• Easier to __________
• Similar to _________
Five _________ of Animal Welfare
Originally developed in the U.K. to assess welfare for livestock species.
Considered ideals, not rights or standards for welfare in of themselves.
1. Freedom from _______ and _______
2. Freedom from discomfort
3. Freedom from pain, injury, and disease
4. Freedom to express ________ behaviors
5. Freedom from _______ and distress
Issues with Five Freedoms
• Why might this strategy not
tell an accurate story?
• Focus on negative
• Can we avoid stress in life?
• Is this attainable?
Five __________
• Takes the foundational model of the 5
freedoms, and considers both _________ and
_________ experiences equally
• Now being used by more organizations dealing
with captive animals
Five Domains
1. ________

Water, food, balanced diet
2. ___________

Comfort and pleasurable
3. Health

Healthy, fit, uninjured
4. Behavior

Able to express normal and rewarding behaviors
5. ________ State

Mostly positive experiences
A Life Worth Living or a Good Life?
Another way for us to visualize animal welfare
If we’re using the animals for our benefit, we should ensure that their lives are
at least worth living, but strive for a good life
A Good Life
Strongly positive experiences
A Life Worth Living
Mostly positive experiences
Point of Balance
Equal positive and negative
Mostly negative experiences.
Can be remedied rapidly.
Strongly negative experiences.
Cannot be remedied rapidly, may
require euthanasia
A Life Worth Avoiding
A Life Not Worth Living
Why Do We Feel Differently About Animal Welfare?
• __________ differences

_________ tend to have more empathetic attitudes towards other animals
and be more involved in animal protection efforts, BUT only if they are
currently considered and protected either in a domestic relationship or in a
country with women’s rights considerations
• ________ attitudes

Differing views around the world
___________ incomes tend to have more focus on human welfare than
• Religious attitudes

Christian/Jewish/Muslim vs. Buddhist/Hindu
Why Do We Feel Differently About Animal Welfare?
Animal experiences
Those raised with pets in __________ tend to have more concern for animal welfare
Those who work with, or have an education on ____________, tend to have more
concerns for animal welfare
There are two parts for this work
Part A is the discussion part 200 words
Please check the ppt in attachment and ask a question. You need to explain the question and give
your own answer to the question.

Part B reply the two students below each 100 words, please also use sources when you reply

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