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Eleventh Edition
Organizational
Behavior & Management
Robert Konopaske
John M. Ivancevich
Michael T. Matteson
Organizational
Behavior and
Management
Eleventh Edition
Robert Konopaske
Associate Professor of Management,
McCoy College of Business
Administration, Texas State University
John M. Ivancevich
Hugh Roy and Lillie Cranz Cullen Chair
and Professor of Organizational Behavior
and Management, C. T. Bauer College of
Business, University of Houston
Michael T. Matteson
Professor Emeritus Organizational
Behavior and Management, C. T. Bauer
College of Business, University of Houston
This book is dedicated to our students and
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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND MANAGEMENT, ELEVENTH EDITION
Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2018 by McGraw-Hill
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Konopaske, Robert, author. | Ivancevich, John M., author. | Matteson, Michael T., author.
Title: Organizational behavior and management/Robert Konopaske, Associate Professor of Management,
McCoy College of Business Administration, Texas State University, John M. Ivancevich, Hugh Roy and
Lillie Cranz Cullen Chair and Professor of Organizational Behavior and Management, C. T. Bauer College
of Business, University of Houston, Michael T. Matteson, Professor Emeritus Organizational Behavior and
Management, C. T. Bauer College of Business, University of Houston.
Description: Eleventh Edition. | Dubuque, IA : McGraw-Hill Education, 2016. | Revised edition of
Organizational behavior and management.
Identifiers: LCCN 2016041475 | ISBN 9781259894534 (alk. paper) | ISBN 1259894533 (alk. paper)
Subjects: LCSH: Organizational behavior.
Classification: LCC HD58.7 .I89 2016 | DDC 658.4–dc23 LC record available at
https://lccn.loc.gov/2016041475
The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does
not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not
guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.
mheducation.com/highered
About the Authors
Robert Konopaske is Associate Professor of Management at the McCoy College of Business
Administration, Texas State University. He earned his Doctoral Degree in management from the
University of Houston, a Master’s Degree in international business studies from the University
of South Carolina, and an undergraduate degree at Rutgers University. His teaching and research
interests focus on international management, organizational behavior, and human resource
management issues.
The recipient of numerous teaching awards at four different universities, Rob is also the
co-author of several textbooks, including: M: Management (4th and 5th editions), Management: Leading & Collaborating in a Competitive World (12th edition), Organizations:
Behavior, Structure, Processes (11th, 12th, 13th, and 14th editions), Organizational Behavior and Management (7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and 11th editions), Human Resource Management
(12th edition) and Global Management and Organizational Behavior. He has published
numerous academic articles in Journal of Managerial Psychology, Journal of Applied
­Psychology, Academy of Management Executive, Journal of Management Education,
­Journal of Business Research, Work and Stress, Human Resource Management Review,
Management International Review, Business Horizons, Human Resource Management, and
International Journal of Human Resource Management. He has served on the editorial
boards of two international management journals, and has held multiple national leadership
positions for the Academy of Management’s Human Resource Division. Rob has worked in
the private, nonprofit, and education sectors, and has conducted research-based consulting
for such global companies as Credit Suisse, PricewaterhouseCoopers, and KPMG.
John (Jack) M. Ivancevich (August 16, 1939–October 26, 2009): In Memoriam.
Hugh Roy and Lillie Cranz Cullen Chair and Professor of Organizational Behavior and
Management, C. T. Bauer College of Business, University of Houston; B.S. from Purdue
University, and MBA and DBA from the University of Maryland.
Never one to miss a deadline, Jack submitted his last revisions for this textbook during
the summer of 2009. A few months later, he passed away with quiet dignity surrounded by
loved ones. On that day, the management discipline lost a passionate and award-winning
educator, and an influential leader with an incomparable work ethic and sense of integrity.
Jack led by example, and those of us who were fortunate enough to know him were inspired
to work harder and reach higher than we ever thought possible.
Jack was committed to higher education and the creation and dissemination of management
knowledge. He was comfortable in the classroom and would encourage students to think critically about and apply the concepts and theories of organizational behavior and management to
their lives. Jack had an “open door” policy, and spent countless hours helping students and
answering their questions. His reputation as a tough teacher was softened by his appreciation for
the need of many students to balance a desire for education with a full-time job and family
demands. Among Jack’s most valued honors was the Ester Farfel Award for Research, Teaching,
and Service Excellence, the highest honor bestowed to a University of Houston faculty member.
Complementing his passion for teaching, Jack loved to write books. He tried to write at least
300 days a year, averaging about 1,200 words per day. Over a 40-year period, Jack reached well
over a million students by authoring or co-authoring 88 books about various aspects of management and organizational behavior. In 1987, the first edition of Organizational Behavior and
iii
iv About the Authors
Management (with Michael T. Matteson) was published. Preceding this textbook were several
others like the award-winning and popular textbook Organizations: Behavior, Structure, Processes (co-authored with James L. Gibson and James H. Donnelly); which was first published in
1973 and is currently in its 14th edition. In 2005, Organizations (11th edition) received the
McGuffey Longevity Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association. This award recognizes textbooks and learning materials whose excellence has been demonstrated over time. A
sample of Jack’s other textbooks include: Human Resource Management, Global Management
and Organizational Behavior (co-authored with Robert Konopaske), Management and Organizational Behavior Classics (co-authored with Michael T. Matteson), Fundamentals of Management: Functions, Behavior, Models (co-authored with James L. Gibson and James H. Donnelly),
and Management: Quality and Competitiveness (co-authored with Peter Lorenzi, Steven
Skinner, and Philip Crosby).
Jack was not only an accomplished educator and book author but also a prolific and
highly respected researcher. Well known for his highly disciplined work ethic, Jack
authored or co-authored some 160 research articles, which were published in such journals as Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Administrative Science Quarterly, Journal of Applied Psychology, and Harvard Business Review.
His research was highly influential and explored a range of management and organizational behavior topics, including job stress, white-collar crime, diversity management,
global assignments, job loss, absenteeism, job satisfaction, goal setting, job performance,
training method effectiveness, and organizational climate. The diversity of Jack’s research
reflected the complex and interrelated nature of management issues in organizations. In
2000, in recognition of publishing a substantial number of refereed articles in Academy of
Management journals, Jack was inducted into the Academy of Management’s Journals
Hall of Fame as one of the first 33 Charter Members. This is an impressive achievement
when considering that in 2000, the Academy of Management had approximately 13,500
members.
In addition to teaching, writing books and conducting research, Jack applied his knowledge of organizational behavior and management to the several leadership positions he
held since joining the University of Houston faculty in 1974. In 1975, he was named Chair
of the Department of Organizational Behavior and Management, and in the following year,
Jack became the Associate Dean of Research for the College of Business Administration at
UH. In 1979, Jack was awarded the Hugh Roy and Lillie Cranz Cullen Chair of Organizational Behavior and Management, among the most prestigious positions at the University
of Houston. From 1988–1995, he served as Dean of the UH College of Business Administration. In 1995, Jack was named UH Executive Vice President for Academic Affairs and
Provost, a position he held for two years. Through visionary, performance-driven, and principled leadership, Jack left a lasting and meaningful imprint on the entire University of
Houston community, including internal constituents like fellow administrators, Deans, program directors, faculty, staff, and students, as well as external stakeholders like legislators,
donors, alumni, and area company executives. His accomplishments were even more
extraordinary, given the fact that Jack continued to teach classes, write books, and publish
research articles while holding these myriad leadership positions.
Jack made innumerable contributions to all facets of higher education, all of which will
be felt for years to come. Perhaps one of Jack’s greatest and longest lasting legacies will be
from the many individuals he mentored during his 45 years in higher education. As busy as
he was throughout his entire career, Jack was extremely generous with his time and made
it a priority to mentor a large number of individuals, including current and former students,
junior faculty, colleagues from the publishing industry, and many others. He wanted people
to succeed and would do everything he could to help them accomplish their goals.
About the Authors v
Jack would often invite younger faculty members to collaborate with him on research projects. As a member of 80 doctoral and master’s committees, Jack relished his role as mentor
and would spend hours with graduate students, helping and guiding them through the process of conducting original research for their theses or dissertations. Jack was always willing to make phone calls and write detailed letters of recommendation on behalf of his
students to help them get hired or, later in their careers, get promoted or be awarded tenure.
He invested heavily in these individuals and expected hard work and commitment to excellence in return. Many of these former graduate students are professors at universities and
colleges throughout the United States and now find themselves mentoring and inspiring
their own students.
On a personal note, Jack was my mentor, colleague, and friend. Words cannot capture how
grateful and honored I feel to have worked so closely with him on several organizational
behavior textbooks and research projects over the past 12 years. We became acquainted in
1999, after Jack agreed to be my dissertation chair at the University of Houston. Given Jack’s
stature and commanding presence, I was a little intimidated by him in the beginning but
quickly realized he was a “gentle giant” who could switch rapidly between discussions of
research, books, academic careers, teaching, and the importance of being a good family man
and father, and achieving balance in one’s life. Jack was a great story teller and especially
liked relating tales of his early years in the south side of Chicago. Like me, he was proud of
the fact that he grew up in a multiethnic environment where one’s parents, extended family,
and family friends were always around to keep an eye on the kids in the neighborhood, while
always ready to offer them a delicious home-cooked meal. Jack taught me many things; some
lessons were passed along during thoughtful conversations, but most came by observing him
in action. Jack taught me to take life “head on” with a strong, positive, and can-do attitude
while never losing sight of the importance of being a loving and committed husband and
father. He will be sorely missed by all of us who were fortunate to have been touched by his
warm friendship and guided by his generous spirit.
Jack is survived by his wife of 37 years, Margaret (Pegi) Karsner Ivancevich; son Daniel
and wife Susan; daughter Jill and husband David Zacha, Jr.; and grandchildren Kathryn
Diane and Amanda Dana Ivancevich, and Hunter David Michael, Hailey Dana, and
Hannah Marie Zacha. Jack was preceded in death by his beloved daughter Dana and by his
first wife, Diane Frances Murphy Ivancevich.
Robert Konopaske
December 28, 2009
Michael T. Matteson is an Emeritus Professor of Management at the University of
­Houston. After receiving his Ph.D. in industrial psychology from the University
of ­Houston, Mike taught graduate and undergraduate courses in the C. T. Bauer College
of Business for over three decades. He also served as Associate Dean and Department
­Chairperson at the University of Houston. Mike has published numerous research and
theory-based articles on occupational stress, managing stress, preventive health, work-site
health promotion, intervention programs, and research methods. He has consulted with
and provided training programs for organizations in numerous industries. He is the
co-author or co-editor of a number of textbooks and trade books including Stress and
Work: A Managerial Perspective, Management and Organizational Behavior Classics,
and Controlling Work Stress.
Brief Contents
Preface
xiii
PART FOUR
PART ONE
The Field of Organizational Behavior 1
1 Effective Managers Understand
Organizational Behavior 3
2 International and Organizational
Culture 31
PART TWO
Understanding and Managing Individual
Behavior 55
3 Individual Differences at Work 57
4 Perceptions and Attributions 81
5 Motivation 101
6 Job Design and Performance 131
7 Evaluation and Rewards Influence
Behavior 157
8 Managing Employee Behavior 191
9 Managing Individual Stress 213
PART THREE
Group Behavior and Interpersonal
Influence 245
10 Groups and Teams 247
11 Managing Conflict and Negotiations
12 Power and Politics 307
vi
Organizational Processes 335
13 Communicating Effectively 337
14 Decision Making 371
15 Leadership 401
PART FIVE
Organizational Design, Change, and
Innovation 437
16 Organizational Structure and Design 439
17 Managing Organizational Change 471
APPENDIX
Quantitative and Qualitative Research
Techniques for Studying Organizational
Behavior and Management Practice 503
GLOSSARY
513
ENDNOTES
525
INDEXES
279
575
Contents
Preface
xiii
Organizational Culture Matters
PART ONE
THE FIELD OF ORGANIZATIONAL
BEHAVIOR 1
Chapter 1
Effective Managers Understand
Organizational Behavior 3
The Evolution of Management
Scientific Management 6
Administrative Management
7
9
Systems Theory and Organizational Effectiveness 10
Quality 12
Productivity 12
Efficiency 13
Satisfaction 13
Adaptiveness 13
Development 13
41
42
43
46
Summary of Key Points 49
Review and Discussion Questions
Exercises 50
Case 52
49
PART TWO
UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING
INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR 55
Chapter 3
Individual Differences at Work
Environmental Forces Reshaping
Management Practice 14
Framing the Study of
Organizational Behavior 18
57
Why Individual Differences Matter 57
Individual Differences Influence Work Behavior
The Organization’s Environment 18
Understanding and Managing Individual Behavior 18
Group Behavior and Interpersonal Influence 21
Organizational Processes 23
Organizational Design, Change, and Innovation 24
Summary of Key Points 25
Review and Discussion Questions
Exercise 26
Case 29
Anticipatory Socialization
Accommodation 42
Role Management 43
Mentoring 43
Spirituality and Culture
7
Leaders and Organizational Behavior
The Hawthorne Studies 9
Influencing Culture Change 40
Socialization Sustains the Culture
35
Characteristics of Effective Socialization
5
Why Study Organizational Behavior?
34
Organizational Culture Defined 35
Organizational Culture and Its Effects
Creating Organizational Culture 37
26
Chapter 2
International and Organizational
Culture 31
National Culture and Values Influence Workplace
Behavior 32
58
Diversity 59
Abilities and Skills 62
Attitudes 64
Personality 67
Emotions 72
Summary of Key Points 76
Review and Discussion Questions
Exercise 77
Case 79
76
Chapter 4
Perceptions and Attributions 81
The Perceptual Process 81
Perceptual Grouping 85
Perceptual Groupings Can Create Inaccuracies
Stereotyping 87
Selective and Divided Attention
87
88
vii
viii Contents
The Way People Perceive Their Jobs
Halo Effect 88
Similar-to-Me Errors 89
Situational Factors 89
Needs and Desires 89
Attribution Theory 90
Impression Management
Increasing Range in Jobs: Job Rotation and Job
Enlargement 141
92
An Interpersonal Process 92
A Model and Impression Management
in Practice 93
Summary of Key Points 95
Review and Discussion Questions
Exercises 96
Case 99
Chapter 5
Motivation
Job Rotation 141
Job Enlargement 141
Increasing Depth in Jobs: Job Enrichment
Self-Managed Teams 145
Alternative Work Arrangements
95
The Starting Point: Needs Motivate Employees
Content Approaches 105
103
Chapter 7
Evaluation and Rewards Influence
Behavior 157
Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy 105
Alderfer’s ERG Theory 107
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory 108
McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory 111
A Synopsis of the Four Content Theories 112
Evaluation of Performance
Performance Evaluation Feedback
115
Motivation and the Psychological Contract 122
Effective Managers Motivate Their Employees 123
Summary of Key Points 124
Review and Discussion Questions 125
Exercise 126
Case 127
Chapter 6
Job Design and Performance
131
Range and Depth 137
Job Relationships 138
Reinforcement Theory
164
Reinforcement 165
Punishment 165
Extinction 165
Reinforcement Schedules
165
A Model of Individual Rewards
167
168
Rewards Affect Important Organizational
Outcomes 174
Turnover and Absenteeism 174
Job Performance 175
Organizational Commitment 175
Innovative Reward Systems
135
Job Design: Range, Depth, and Relationships
161
Purpose of Evaluation Feedback 162
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