Attached. Please let me know if you have any questions or need revisions.1Topic: Factors affecting the creation of educational content via the youtube platformResearch Questions1. To what extent does the availability of financial resources affect educational contentcreation via the youtube platform?2. What is the influence of technological infrastructure on the creation of educational contenton the YouTube platform?3. How does ICT competence influence the creation of educational content on the YouTubeplatform?4. What is the perception towards the creation of educational content on the YouTubePlatform?Availability of financial resources and creation of educational content on the YouTubeplatformSuccessful creation of educational content via the YouTube platform requires financialresources to cater to the costs of purchasing necessary technological tools like computers, laptops,smartphones, ipads, and paying for the installation of internet and electricity to facilitate theeducation content creation the YouTube platform. Financial constraints affect creating educationalcontent on the YouTube platform, considering that most learning institutions have limited financialresources dedicated to learning via YouTube (Almaiah et al., 2020). Thus, education institutionsshould identify the funding necessary that is set aside for educational content creation on theYouTube platform.The World Economic has dramatically affected the COVID-19 pandemic, leaving little or nofunds for education content creation. As the world is restoring from the effects of COVID-19, thusfunds may not be available for activities like learning via YouTube, further hindering or affecting2the use of YouTube in creating educational content. Economic and financial constraints among thestudents and the educational facilities affect YouTube platforms for e-learning purposes (Kwofie& Henten, 2011). The items required for learning via the YouTube platform, which includescomputers, constant electric supply, and a reliable internet connection, all require funds and, thus,a critical factor affecting creating educational content on the YouTube platform. Althoughaccessing the YouTube platform may be seen as a cheaper way of accessing educational content,deliberate efforts need to be put to ensure financial constraints are dealt with strategically.Studies have also shown that limited financial resources hinder the integration of ICT in theeducation system. A survey by Swarts and Wachira (2010) shows that the high cost of putting upICT infrastructure has limited most public schools’ ability to adopt the technology for teachingstudents. The lack of financial resources among public schools is considerable because of povertylevels that render the schools unable to afford computer hardware and software’s high costs. Thestudy established that most public schools in Kenya do not have the financial resources requiredto purchase expensive computers and hardware and provide teachers with training. Most of theschools can only afford corrupted versions of software and, in most cases, use refurbishedcomputers. These studies showed they need financial resources to create educational content to beaired via the YouTube platform. The purchase of technological infrastructures necessary for theairing of education content via YouTube requires financial resources.Technological infrastructure and creation of educational content on the YouTube platformTechnological infrastructure is necessary for any e-Learning, including the YouTube platform.Iqbal & Ahmad (2010) stated that to promote e-learning, technical and institutional infrastructurelike computers, internet networks, and electric power supply is necessary. These infrastructuresinclude reliable and fast Information, Communication, and Technology (ICT) infrastructures.3Infrastructural materials like computers, laptops, and the internet are vital in implementinglearning via the website, for instance, YouTube (Njuguna, 2013). Arthur-Nyarko & Kariuki (2019)supported the notion that technological resources like computers, smartphones, tablets, electricity,and the internet are necessary when creating educational content for the YouTube platform. Allthese studies show the importance of technological infrastructures when engaging in education viathe YouTube platform.According to Al-Araibi et al. (2019), Technological aspects are the single most essential toolsfor effective learning via the website or e-Learning. These technological aspects revolve aroundthe technical infrastructure and the skills and knowledge of the people accessing and using theinternet. Al-Araibi et al. (2019) highlighted the technological elements to include the software,hardware, flexibility of the system, technical skills and support data centers, cloud computing,security, and connectivity. Investing in these technological aspects is necessary for the effectivecreation of educational content on YouTube challenges the targeted population, which is thestudents who can access that. Lack of either of the aspects spells doom for any form of e-learning(Al-Araibi et al., 2019). The creation of educational content for the YouTube platform also requiresall the mentioned ICT infrastructural tools to succeed.A study by Almaiah et al. (2020) highlighted the needed technological factors for e-learningas computers, internet servers, communication networks, software applications, hardware, andoperating systems. All these technical factors are necessary for ensuring successful educationcontent creation on YouTube. Almanthari et al. (2020), also in agreement with Almaiah et al.(2020) and Al-Araibi et al. (2019), stated that the availability of the internet, software, hardware,and technical support is necessary for any form of e-learning to include learning via the YouTubeplatform.4The availability, accessibility, and usability of the education website, in this case, youtube, isnecessary when creating education content Almaiah et al. 2020). Considering that YouTube isreadily available to individuals with computers and internet access, the lack of these technologicaltools affects the availability of YouTube. Besides, the accessibility of YouTube still requires oneto have a computer or smartphone and internet connectivity. The availability and accessibility ofYouTube are further influenced by the ability to use it, affecting educational content creation.Access to reliable internet, a computer or a smartphone, and reliable internet connection arenecessary for academic learning via YouTube (Kwofie & Henten, 2011). According to Ozudogru& Hismanoglu (2016), technological infrastructure like the internet should be robust and reliablewhen engaging in education via e-learning, YouTube, to avoid any communication let-downs.Further on technological infrastructure is the internet (YouTube) website’s ease of use andaccess, and the quality of the website is critical in creating educational content (Almaiah &Almulhem, 2018). Almaiah et al. (2020) stated that an e-learning system (YouTube platform)should be easy to use for learners to get the best out of it. The quality of the website and its designseither promotes or hinders learner’s educational satisfaction. The content provided by the websiteshould be diverse enough to meet all requirements of learners (Almaiah & Almulhem, 2018).Therefore, apart from acquiring the basic technological infrastructure necessary for creatingeducational content on the YouTube platform, caution should also be directed toward the qualityof YouTube as a tool of education and the education content uploaded for the benefits of thelearners. According to Almaiah & Almulhem, 2018, the ease of use and access speed of the websitealso affects educational content creation on the YouTube platform. Quickly accessing informationvia YouTube at a quicker rate guarantees access to quality education content, whereas failure touse and learn via YouTube affects learning.5Educational content via the internet, including YouTube platforms, is positively affected by alack of technological support and acceptance (Vershitskaya et al., 2020). Failure to accepttechnology and fully support its implementation positively affects educational content creation onthe YouTube platform. It is, therefore, necessary to note that investing in technologicalinfrastructure is essential and so accepts its implementation or its use in creating educationalcontent. It requires technical support to ensure success in creating educational content onYouTube.The importance of access to technical support is demonstrated by Yilmaz, (2011) assessmentof technology integration in the Turkish education system. The study’s findings establishedthat85.3% of the schools reported that access to technical support helped to integrate ICT in theeducation system. Technical support is necessary for the maintenance of ICT hardware andinfrastructure. The study established that teachers were unwilling to adopt ICT if they did not haveaccess to technical support out of fear of technical failure, which they could not handle. Lack oftechnical support in schools reduces technical maintenance, increasing the probability and risk oftechnical breakdowns. Teachers also waste a lot of time troubleshooting software and hardwareproblems without technical support instead of teaching (Yilmaz, 2011). Therefore, technicalsupport is influential on teachers’ willingness to adopt ICT in creating educational content. Itensures proper maintenance of ICT infrastructure, reducing the risk of breakdowns that teacherscannot handle.ICT competence influence and creation of educational content on the YouTube platformBesides technological infrastructure, technical knowledge, skills, and competence by bothlearners and instructors are necessary to create educational content on YouTube (Almaiah et al.,2020). Information Communication and Technology (ICT) skills and literacy of both the learners6and the instructors are critical in influencing educational content creation on the YouTubeplatform. Therefore, ICT competence and skills are vital in YouTube learning. ICT competencerefers to the ability to handle a wide range of varying ICT applications for various purposes. Forinstructors, ICT competence relates to teachers’ skills and knowledge to use ICT in teachingeffectively. For students, ICT competence refers to their ability to grasp the information providedvia ICT platforms like the YouTube platform. Instructors who possess the ICT skills are ready andwilling to create educational content via the YouTube platform as opposed to those with limitedICT skills (Bordbar, 2010).Almanthari et al. (2020) noted that both students’ and teachers’ skills and knowledge levelsare necessary to create educational content on the YouTube platform. The knowledge to usenetwork-based applications like YouTube affects educational content (Almaiah & Almulhem,2018). Thus, it is essential to note that both students and tutors should have ICT skills for educationcontent in the YouTube platform to be utilized successfully for the best of the students andeducational institutions. Lack of or inadequate computer skills among the students hinders learningvia the youtube platform (Kwofie & Henten, 2011). Students who do not have the knowledge andskills to navigate the YouTube platform and access the posted education content because of a lackof necessary ICT skills may not reap the benefits of learning through the youtube platform.According to Iqbal & Ahmad (2010), computer accessibility and literacy are critical factorsin ensuring the successful implementation of e-learning. The creation of educational content isonly possible with the two elements, among others. Necessary skills and knowledge provide thesmooth running and operation of e-learning and are vital in creating educational content on theyoutube platform. Further, ICT competence among teachers and their ability to use computer skillsto develop educational content and use technology to impart knowledge and skills among students7also affects academic content creation via youtube platforms (Kwofie & Henten, 2011). Teacher’steaching competence, which includes interaction with the technology, is essential in eLearning(youtube platform education) (Ozudogru & Hismanoglu, 2016).Empirical evidence suggests that instructors who have a negative attitude towardsintegrating ICT into teaching and learning lack the essential skills and knowledge required to applyICT to creating educational content on the website. Technical competence is particularly moreinfluential on instructors’ use of ICT in teaching. However, instructors need little of the technicalaspects of ICT such as writing computer programs, coding, developing an application, or designingwebsites but require knowledge and skills related to ICT educational use only, for instance, contentcreation, uploading, and downloading of information.Almaiah & Alyoussef (2019) supported the notion that instructors with sufficientknowledge and computer skills necessary in the internet’s use influence educational contentcreation on youtube platforms. The knowledge and skills to consider for the instructors includeonline or virtual classes, uploading and downloading educational contents like courses andassignments. Almaiah & Alyoussef (2019) suggests continuous learning for instructors to gainskills and abilities for technological navigation and also learn how to use newly inventedspecialized tools in the youtube platform.Closely related to ICT competence studies is the instructor’s confidence about their ICTskills and competence. The instructor’s enthusiasm determines the willingness of tutors to createeducational content on the YouTube Platform. Tutors are always reluctant to engage in onlineeducational content creation owing to their skewed ICT skills and knowledge. We can attribute thelack of confidence among tutors to two factors; fear of failing while using ICT in creatingeducational content and lack of requisite ICT knowledge and skills. The fear is partly driven by8the embarrassment of making mistakes and being corrected by their students (Buabeng-Andoh,2012; Mutuku & Ogutu, 2018).Equally, teachers who feel confident about their ICT competence quickly embrace and usetechnological advancement for their teaching; for instance, they can easily create educationalcontent for the youtube platform. Therefore, developing educational content on the youtubeplatform is highly influenced by tutors’ confidence in their ICT skills and knowledge.Studies in Kenya have also established that teachers’ ICT competence is a significant determinantof teachers’ intention to use ICT in their teaching practice. A survey by Mutuku and Ogutu (2018)on the factors influencing the adoption of ICT among secondary schools in Machakos County hasrevealed that teacher’s ICT competence was a statistically significant determinant of the teacher’sintention to use ICT in their teaching practice at 95% confidence level. Findings of the study haverevealed that 70.2% of the teacher who was not competent did not intend to use ICT in teaching.Mutuku and Ogutu (2018) rate the teacher’s competence on six aspects of ICT, which included theability to process word documents; ability to operate excel worksheet; ability to use databasepackages such as access; ability to make PowerPoint presentation; ability to use the internet; andability to carry out some programming.The study’s findings established that 62(91%) of the teachers showed high competencelevels in processing, editing, and printing a word document; 38(55%) of the teachers werereasonably competent in working on an excel spreadsheet. However, teachers had low competencelevels in programming, where only 8 (12%) of the teachers were brilliant. Similarly, most teachers,53 (77%), did not have skills in using database documents. The study further established that theteacher’s age influences teacher ICT competence.9The study’s findings established that older teachers showed lower levels of ICTcompetence, while young and vibrant teachers were more competent. There were five teachers 50years and above; only 2 had skills in word processing. All the 23 teachers below 30 years showedhigh competence levels across all the ICT aspects tested; between the ages of 31-35, there were 18teachers. Out of this, 15 teachers showed ICT competence in all the ICT aspects tested (Mutuku& Ogutu, 2018). We attribute old teachers’ unwillingness to use technology because most of thesenior teachers have taught over a long period without using ICT and being rigid about how theyteach. Therefore, they may not see the usefulness of integrating ICT in teaching and will not seethe necessity of creating educational content for the YouTube Platform.Studies have also shown that we should give tutors the central role in creating educational contentand training on ICT.A study by Andiema (2015) on the challenges of adopting ICT in teaching among publicpreschools revealed that teachers’ ICT is essential for adopting ICT in pre-primary schools.Findings of the study showed that low levels of ICT adoption among pre-primary schools in theNorth Rift region were because of a low level of ICT skills and knowledge among teachers. Theyattributed this to the fact that computer usage was not part of their training during their training.Therefore, most teachers lacked the essential ICT skills required to create e-learning educationcontent (Andiema, 2015). This study underscores the fundamental role of teachers in creatingeducational content for teaching and learning, hence ensuring that they get the skills and trainingin ICT.In a study of the factors influencing the implementation of ICT in Kajiado North SubCounty, Muriuki (2017) established that teachers’ training in ICT plays a significant role inadopting ICT in teaching in public primary schools. However, less than half of the teachers (45%)10in the Sub County showed they had received ICT training, with only 40% reporting to havereceived ICT training and 15% inadequate ICT training. The study further established that ICTinduction programs had no significant impact on equipping teachers with ICT skills. Even thoughthe teachers had undertaken the ICT induction workshops, they had not grasped the ICT skillsproperly. The induction workshops failed to meet their needs leading to low levels of ICT skillsand knowledge among public primary school teachers affecting their competence.They have also established considerable differences in possession of ICT skills based on the typeof schools.Studies have established that teachers in national secondary schools possessed more ICTskills because of their high training level. A survey of the ICT capacities and capabilities innational secondary schools in Kenya by Ndhine et al. (2010) established that most teacherspossessed the ICT skills. According to the study’s findings, 73% of teachers were trained in ICTcompared to 27% who were untrained. They also established variations in training levels, with57% of the respondents having basic ICT training, 29% having undergone intermediate ICTtraining, and only 14% had advanced necessary skills.Perception and attitudes towards the creation of educational content on the YouTubePlatformThe successful integration of e-learning in schools by embracing education content creationon the youtube platform is mostly influenced by the perceived usefulness of ICT, especially by theinstitution administration and teachers. Their attitudes and beliefs, to a large extent, influence thetutor’s perceived use of ICT. Instructors are more inclined to integrate ICT in teaching students ifthey perceive ICT programs to be fulfilling their needs and the needs of their students. There is a11high probability of teachers adopting ICT in teaching if they have a positive attitude towards theusefulness of using education technology in teaching and learning. If they believe that the use ofICT is likely to be beneficial to their teaching job, it inclines them to adopt it in teaching andlearning (Buabeng-Andoh, 2012).ICT experience influences teachers’ attitudes and beliefs towards the usefulness of ICT ineducation ICT. Teachers with vast experience in ICT have positive attitudes towards the use oftechnology in education. More experience with computers’ help relates positively to its adoptionby the teacher in teaching and learning. A positive attitude towards ICT use in educational settingsfosters computer integration in the classroom (Buabeng-Andoh, 2012). Therefore, the successfulintegration of ICT in schools depends on whether teachers perceive it as useful to their work andmeet their students’ needs requires that teachers be knowledgeable about various aspects of ICT.Many studies have shown the successful adoption of ICT in schools depends on theteacher’s attitude towards the usefulness of ICT. Demici (2009) sought to establish the influenceof teachers’ perspectives on the use of Geographic Information systems (GIS) throughquestionnaires to collect data from 79 geography teachers in Turkey. Fin…
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