SOLUTION: hudson County Community College Principles of Sociology Question

Chapter 10
Poverty
Copyright © 2019 W. W. Norton & Company
Paradox
• How do we help the poor
without creating perverse
incentives that induce more
poverty in the long run?
• Click here to watch the paradox
animation:
https://digital.wwnorton.com/youmayask6
What Is Poverty?
Slide 1 of 3
Poverty can be defined as a condition of deprivation due to
economic circumstances that is severe enough that the
individual in this condition cannot live with dignity in his or her
society.
What Is Poverty?
Slide 2 of 3
At the core of the debate about poverty in America is the
question of whether poverty is the cause of social ills such as
crime, poor educational outcomes, divorce, and so on, or
whether it is their result.
What Is Poverty?
Slide 3 of 3
During a recession, poverty rates may be higher. A recession is a
period of economic decline lasting half a year or more.
Poverty in America
The Culture of Poverty
Slide 1 of 3
The culture of poverty theory argues that poor people adopt
certain practices, which differ from those of middle-class,
“mainstream” society, in order to adapt and survive in difficult
economic circumstances.
The Culture of Poverty
Slide 2 of 3
While it may be true that reliance on welfare generates a sense
of helplessness and dependency in some people, there are also
structural reasons why it can be difficult to transition from
welfare to work.
The Culture of Poverty
Slide 3 of 3
William Julius Wilson turned the focus from welfare to factors
such as deindustrialization, globalization, suburbanization, and
discrimination as causes of urban poverty.
In the past 20 to 30 years, policies to combat poverty have
focused on encouraging work and offering benefits that directly
serve children.
Discussion Question 1
In your view, what are some ways that individuals might escape
poverty?
What kinds of barriers might they face in attempting to do so?
Mario Luis Small Interview
• In this interview, Mario Luis
Small discusses the culture of
poverty thesis.
• Click here to watch the
interview:
https://digital.wwnorton.com/youmayask6
David Grusky Interview
• David Grusky asks whether
people would opt out of the
labor market if the United
States had a very substantial
safety net.
• Click here to watch the
interview:
https://digital.wwnorton.com/youmayask6
Does Poverty Impact Us?
Slide 1 of 3
In her book What Money Can’t Buy, sociologist Susan Mayer
writes that she found very little evidence to support the widely
held belief that parental income has a significant effect on
children’s outcomes.
Does Poverty Impact Us?
Slide 2 of 3
In The Bell Curve, Charles Murray and Richard Hernstein argued
that it’s not poverty or education or parenting that ultimately
has the most impact on children’s outcomes, but simply genes.
Does Poverty Impact Us?
Slide 3 of 3
James Rosenbaum’s study of the Gautreaux Assisted Living
Program in Chicago and the Moving to Opportunity (MTO) study
began in 1994.
• Studies were designed to see if moving to less impoverished
communities might affect the quality of life.
• MTO study in particular seemed to show that living in a
quieter, less stressful environment did have very positive
effects on children.
Discussion Question 2
Think about the neighborhood or community where you grew
up. How did it shape the opportunities you have had in life?
What advantages or disadvantages did you face where you grew
up?
Matthew Desmond Interview
• Matthew Desmond discusses
his research on another
negative trend hitting lowincome families hard: eviction.
• Click here to watch the
interview:
https://digital.wwnorton.com/youmayask6
Poverty Amid Plenty
Slide 1 of 4
Absolute poverty is the point at which a household’s income
falls below the necessary level to purchase food to physically
sustain its members.
Poverty Amid Plenty
Slide 2 of 4
The official poverty line in the United States is calculated using a
formula developed in the 1960s by Mollie Orshansky.
• Estimates food costs for minimum food requirements to
determine whether a family can “afford” to survive
• Can be problematic, as the cost of food has decreased but
the cost of living (rent, utilities, etc.) has increased
Poverty Amid Plenty
Slide 3 of 4
Poverty Amid Plenty
Slide 4 of 4
• Relative poverty is a
measurement of poverty based
on a percentage of the median
income in a given location.
Why Is the United States Different?
1 of 2
The United States is much more unequal (our rich are much
richer than our poor) than any other developed nation, and has
one of the highest poverty rates (a larger percentage of the
population is below the poverty line) in the advanced world.
Poverty Among Wealthy Countries
Concept Quiz
Question 1 of 5
Poverty can best be defined as
a) a household’s income falling below a percentage of the
median income in a given location.
b) the unequal distribution of wealth that results from
private ownership.
c) a condition of deprivation due to economic circumstances
that is severe enough that the individual in this condition
cannot live with dignity in his or her society.
d) the point at which a household’s income falls below the
necessary level to purchase food to physically sustain its
members.
Concept Quiz
Question 2 of 5
In What Money Can’t Buy, sociologist Susan Mayer challenged
the common assumption that
a) the welfare system encourages dependence on
government handouts.
b) many welfare recipients do not want transition to work.
c) poverty directly causes poor health, behavioral problems,
and a host of other problems for children.
d) low-income neighborhoods breed dependence on welfare,
crime, and divorce.
Concept Quiz
Question 3 of 5
The __________, as the label was conceived by journalist Ken
Auletta, refers to people who not only are unable to take
advantage of what society has to offer, but also are increasingly
deviant and even dangerous to the rest of society.
a) underclass
b) working poor
c) nonworking poor
d) welfare dependent
Concept Quiz
Question 4 of 5
The Gautreaux Assisted Living Program in Chicago and the
Moving to Opportunity study provided opportunities to explore
a) the effects of living in a low-poverty versus a high-poverty
neighborhood.
b) how home ownership affects parental employment and
children’s education.
c) regional differences in public housing programs.
d) how social conditions come to be a greater determinant of
outcomes than income.
Concept Quiz
Question 5 of 5
The level of income inequality in the United States is
a) lower than that of most other developed countries.
b) higher than that of most other developed countries.
c) higher than that of many developing countries.
d) higher than that of all other developed countries.
Discussion Questions
1. What is unique about the
extent of poverty in the United
States compared with other
countries?
2. What factors within the United
States might play a role in
poverty?
Sociology on the Street
The average daily food stamp benefit is $4–5, which means that
many people on food stamps must calculate the exact value of
each meal. Do you know how much your meals cost?
Watch the Sociology on the Street video to find out more:
https://digital.wwnorton.com/youmayask6
This concludes the Lecture PowerPoint presentation for:
Chapter 10
Poverty
For more learning resources, please visit:
digital.wwnorton.com/youmayask6
Copyright © 2019 W. W. Norton & Company
31
Chapter 7
Stratification
Copyright © 2019 W. W. Norton & Company
Paradox
• Paradox: Inequality is the
result of abundance.
• Click here to see the paradox
animation:
https://digital.wwnorton.com/youmayask6
What Is Stratification?
Stratification refers to the hierarchical organization of a society
into groups with differing levels of power, social prestige, or
status and economic resources.
Views of Inequality
Slide 1 of 4
• In the eighteenth century, JeanJacques Rousseau argued that
private property creates social
inequality, and that this
inequality ultimately leads to
social conflict.
Views of Inequality
Slide 2 of 4
Adam Ferguson and John Millar agreed with Rousseau, but they
also argued that this inequality is good because it means that some
people are getting ahead and creating assets (a form of wealth that
can be stored for the future).
Views of Inequality
Slide 3 of 4
Thomas Malthus
• viewed inequality favorably, but only as a means for
controlling population growth.
• thought that a more equal distribution of resources would
increase the world’s population to unsustainable levels and
ultimately bring about mass starvation and conflict.
Views of Inequality
Slide 4 of 4
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
• viewed history in terms of a master–slave dialectic, a
relationship of mutual dependency.
• argued that notions of inequality are constantly evolving in
a larger historical arc. He saw this as a trajectory that would
eventually lead to equality for all (or very nearly all).
Discussion Question 1
Do you think that inequality in society is necessary or
inevitable? Why or why not?
Standards of Equality
Slide 1 of 3
Equality of opportunity
• Inequality is acceptable so long as everyone has the same
opportunities for advancement and is judged by the same
standards.
• The standard model for what equality means in a
bourgeois society is a society of commerce in which the
maximization of profit is the primary business incentive.
• Example: Antidiscrimination laws
Standards of Equality
Slide 2 of 3
Equality of condition
• Idea that everyone should have an equal starting point from
which to pursue his or her goals
• Example: Food stamps and Medicaid for children in poor
families
Standards of Equality
Slide 3 of 3
Equality of outcome
• Everyone in a society should end up with the same
“rewards,” regardless of starting point, opportunities, or
contributions.
Forms of Stratification
Slide 1 of 7
The estate system is politically based and characterized by
limited social mobility.
The caste system is based on hereditary notions of religious
and theological purity and generally offers no prospects for
social mobility.
The class system is economically based with somewhat loose
social mobility based on roles in the production process rather
than individual characteristics.
Forms of Stratification
Slide 2 of 7
Karl Marx felt that society was divided strictly into two
classes—the proletariat, or working class, and the
bourgeoisie, or employing class.
Forms of Stratification
Slide 3 of 7
Erik Olin Wright developed the concept of contradictory class
locations, which is the idea that people can occupy locations in
the class structure that fall between the two “pure” classes
defined by Marx.
Forms of Stratification
Slide 4 of 7
• Max Weber’s concept of class is
based on grouping people
according to the value of their
property or labor in the
commercial marketplace.
Forms of Stratification
Slide 5 of 7
The status hierarchy system is a system of stratification based
on social prestige.
Forms of Stratification
Slide 6 of 7
Forms of Stratification
Slide 7 of 7
The elite-mass dichotomy system is a system of stratification
that has a governing elite—a few leaders who broadly hold the
power of society.
Discussion Question 2
What is the difference between income and wealth? Why might
certain sociologists prefer to measure inequality based on
wealth instead of income?
How Is America Stratified Today?
Slide 1 of 4
Socioeconomic status refers to an individual’s position in a
stratified social order.
Sociologists use “socioeconomic status” to refer to any measure
that attempts to classify groups, individuals, families, or
households in terms of indicators such as occupation, income,
wealth, and education.
How Is America Stratified Today?
Slide 2 of 4
Upper class is a term for the economic elite. One defining
characteristic is their source of income, more from returns on
investments than wages.
Middle class is a term commonly used to describe those
individuals with nonmanual jobs that pay significantly more
than the poverty line.
How Is America Stratified Today?
Slide 3 of 4
Section Color
turquoise
Fuschia
Orange
Green
Blue
Percent of
Population
Top 1
next 4
next 5
next 10
bottom 80
Percent of Net
Worth
40
27
12
11
10
How Is America Stratified Today?
Slide 4 of 4
Poverty has an official, government definition, but there are also
less official categories, such as the working poor and the
nonworking poor (sometimes called the underclass).
In 2018, the poverty line for a family of four was $25,100.
Global Inequality
• Taking a broad view of history,
it is clear that global inequality
has increased dramatically in
the past 500 years.
Jeffrey Sachs Interview
• Jeffrey Sachs describes how
educating young women is key
to Africa going through a
demographic transition.
• Click here to watch the
interview:
digital.wwnorton.com/youmayask6
Social Mobility
Slide 1 of 3
• Social mobility, the movement
between different positions
within a system of social
stratification in any given
society, can be either
horizontal or vertical and can
take place on the individual or
group level.
Social Mobility
Slide 2 of 3
Structural mobility is mobility that is inevitable from changes
in the economy, such as the expansion of high-tech jobs in the
past 20 years.
Exchange mobility occurs when mobility results from the
swapping of jobs; individuals trade jobs such that if one person
is upwardly mobile it necessarily entails someone else being
downwardly mobile.
Michael Hout Interview
• Michael Hout discusses his
research on social inequality
and describes why the number
of college graduates has stalled
since the 1970s.
• Click here to watch the
interview:
https://digital.wwnorton.com/youmayask6
Social Mobility
Slide 3 of 3
The status-attainment model is an approach that ranks
individuals by socioeconomic status, including income and
educational attainment, and seeks to specify the attributes
characteristic of people who end up in more desirable
occupations.
• Research shows that parental education and net worth, not
occupation or income, best predict children’s educational
and other outcomes.
Class-Based Affirmative Action
A result of race-based affirmative action policies is that the most
disadvantaged minorities are not helped and intra-racial
stratification is enhanced.
Class-based affirmative action could address these inequalities
within minority (and majority) communities.
However, implementation of such a policy would face difficulties
in measuring and verifying students’ social class.
Concept Quiz
Question 1 of 5
Which of the following is an example of an asset?
a) a projected salary increase
b) a piece of property
c) a person’s human capital
d) all of the above
e) none of the above
Concept Quiz
Question 2 of 5
Which of the following standards of equality was key to the
arguments of civil rights leaders in the 1960s?
a) equality of opportunity
b) equality of condition
c) ontological equality
d) equality of outcome
Concept Quiz
Question 3 of 5
C. Wright Mills sees the consolidation of power among a small
number of institutions and leaders as
a) the natural result of a meritocracy.
b) the best possible way for a society to function.
c) a necessary evil for the smooth functioning of society.
d) harmful to the interests of the masses.
Concept Quiz
Question 4 of 5
Socioeconomic status can best be defined as
a) an individual’s position in a status hierarchy system.
b) the level of social mobility an individual experiences in his
or her life.
c) an individual’s position in a stratified social order.
d) the total of an individual’s assets.
Concept Quiz
Question 5 of 5
The __________ is a politically based system of stratification
characterized by limited social mobility.
a) estate system
b) class system
c) caste system
d) elite-mass dichotomy system
Discussion Question 3
• Does inequality still exist in the
United States today? How is it
changing?
Sociology on the Street
Someone you would consider rich may not think of him- or
herself that way. If the label “rich” is relative, what does it mean
to be rich?
Watch the Sociology on the Street video to find out more:
https://digital.wwnorton.com/youmayask6
This concludes the Lecture PowerPoint presentation for:
Chapter 7
Stratification
For more learning resources, please visit:
digital.wwnorton.com/youmayask6
Copyright © 2019 W. W. Norton & Company
38
Chapter 2
Methods
Copyright © 2019 W. W. Norton & Company
Paradox
• If we successfully answer one
question, it only spawns
others. There is no moment
when a social scientist’s work
is done.
• Click here to watch the
paradox animation:
https://digital.wwnorton.com/youmayask6
Research Methods
Slide 1 of 2
The scientific method is a procedure involving the formulation,
testing, and modification of hypotheses based on systematic
observation, measurement, and/or experiments.
Theory is an abstracted, systematic model of how some aspect
of the world works.
Research Methods
Slide 2 of 2
Research methods are standard rules that social scientists
follow when trying to establish a causal relationship between
social elements.
• Quantitative methods seek to obtain information about
the social world that is in, or can be converted to, numeric
form.
• Qualitative methods attempt to collect information about
the social world that cannot be readily converted to
numeric form.
danah boyd Interview
• danah boyd uses many
research methods in her work.
She explains how studying teen
behavior both online and
offline enhances her research.
• Click here to watch the
interview:
https://digital.wwnorton.com/youmayask6
Approaches to Research
Slide 1 of 2
A deductive approach to research
• starts with a theory.
• develops a hypothesis.
• makes empirical observations.
• analyzes the data collected through observation to confirm,
reject, or modify the original theory.
Approaches to Research
Slide 2 of 2
An inductive approach to research
• starts with empirical observation.
• works to form a theory.
• determines if a correlation exists by noticing if a change is
observed in two things simultaneously.
The Research Cycle
Causality versus Correlation
Slide 1 of 2
Correlation (or association) is when two variables tend to
track each other positively or negatively (i.e., they tend to vary
together).
Causality is the idea that a change in one factor results in a
corresponding change in another factor.
Causality versus Correlation
Slide 2 of 2
Sociologists conduct research to try to prove causation.
To prove causation, correlation and time order are established
and alternative explanations are ruled out.
Variables
Slide 1 of 2
A dependent variable is the outcome that a researcher is trying
to explain.
An independent variable is a measured factor that the
researcher believes has a causal impact on the dependent
variable.
Variables
Slide 2 of 2
A hypothesis is a proposed relationship between two variables,
usually with a stated direction.
• The direction of the relationship refers to whether your
variables move in the same direction (positive) or in
opposite directions (negative).
Hypothesis Testing
Operationalization is the process of assigning a precise
definition for measuring a concept being examined in a
particular study.
• For example, religiosity (how religious a person is) could be
operationalized as frequency of religious service
attendance.
What Makes “Good” Research?
Good research should be valid, reliable, and generalizable.
• Validity: the extent to which an instrument measures what
it is intended to measure
• Reliability: the likelihood of obtaining consistent results
using the same measure
• Generalizability: the extent to which we can claim our
findings inform us about a group larger than the one we
studied
Discu …
Purchase answer to see full
attachment

Order a unique copy of this paper
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Our Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
Our Options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Expert Proofreading
  • Overnight delivery
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Copies of used sources
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

AcademicWritingCompany guarantees

Our customer is the center of what we do and thus we offer 100% original essays..
By ordering our essays, you are guaranteed the best quality through our qualified experts.All your information and everything that you do on our website is kept completely confidential.

Money-back guarantee

Academicwritingcompany.com always strives to give you the best of its services. As a custom essay writing service, we are 100% sure of our services. That is why we ensure that our guarantee of money-back stands, always

Read more

Zero-plagiarism tolerance guarantee

The paper that you order at academicwritingcompany.com is 100% original. We ensure that regardless of the position you are, be it with urgent deadlines or hard essays, we give you a paper that is free of plagiarism. We even check our orders with the most advanced anti-plagiarism software in the industry.

Read more

Free-revision guarantee

The Academicwritingcompany.com thrives on excellence and thus we help ensure the Customer’s total satisfaction with the completed Order.To do so, we provide a Free Revision policy as a courtesy service. To receive free revision the Academic writing Company requires that the you provide the request within Fifteen (14) days since the completion date and within a period of thirty (30) days for dissertations and research papers.

Read more

Privacy and Security policy

With Academicwritingcompan.com, your privacy is the most important aspect. First, the academic writing company will never resell your personal information, which include credit cards, to any third party. Not even your lecturer on institution will know that you bought an essay from our academic writing company.

Read more

Adherence to requirements guarantee

The academic writing company writers know that following essay instructions is the most important part of academic writing. The expert writers will, therefore, work extra hard to ensure that they cooperate with all the requirements without fail. We also count on you to help us provide a better academic paper.

Read more

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2020 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Customer Academic level
Number of pages required
Urgency of paper