SOLUTION: Jubail University College Gender Discrimination Research Paper

Assignment 1
Student-researcher group (maximum of 5 members) is
required to submit a research proposal. They should follow
the required content in Research Paper Proposal Outline.
This research proposal will be submitted on week 6.
1
RESEARCH PROPOSAL OUTLINE
Title
Chapter 1 – INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.1. Theoretical Framework / Conceptual Framework
1.2. Statement of the Problem
1.3. Hypothesis / Objectives
1.4. Significance of the Study
1.5. Definition of terms
Chapter 2 – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Foreign and Local Literatures, Foreign and Local Studies
Chapter 3 – METHODOLOGY
3.1. Research Design
3.2. Population and Sample
3.3. Research Instrumentation
3.4. Data Gathering
3.5. Data Analysis
References (list of all the materials – such as books, journal, etc.)
Appendix (letter of permission, survey, etc.)
2
Jubail University College – Male Branch
Business Administration Department
Royal Commission of Jubail
Rhetorical Persuasion in Advertisements: Its Psychological Impact
on Millennial Consumers
A Requirement
for the course
BUS 321 (Business Research Methods)
Submitted by:
(ID number – Name – Specialization)
2nd Semester, 2020-21
Submitted to:
Dr. Gilbert M. Talaue
Assistant Professor
Table of Contents
3
Page No.
Chapter 1 – INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY……. 1
Theoretical Framework / Conceptual Framework……………………………2
Statement of the Problem…………………………………………………….
Hypothesis / Objectives………………………………………………………
Significance of the Study…………………………………………………….
Definition of terms……………………………………………………………
Chapter 2 – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES ………………………….
Foreign and Local Literatures, Foreign and Local Studies……………………
Chapter 3 – METHODOLOGY……………………………………………………..
Research Design……………………………………………………………
Population and Sample……………………………………………………..
Research Instrumentation…………………………………………………..
Data Gathering………………………………………………………………
Data Analysis………………………………………………………………..
References …………………………………………………………………………..
Appendix ……………………………………………………………………………
4
Assignment 1
Student-researcher group (maximum of 5 members) is
required to submit a research
proposal. They should follow the required content in Research
Paper Proposal Outline.
This research proposal will be submitted on week
1
6.
RESEARCH PROPOSAL OUTLINE
Title
Chapter 1 – INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.1. Theoretical Framework / Conceptual Framework
1.2. Statement of the Problem
1.3. Hypothesis / Objectives
1.4. Significance of the Study
1.5. Definition of terms
Chapter 2 – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Foreign and Local Literatures, Foreign and Local Studies
Chapter 3 – METHODOLOGY
3.1. Research Design
3.2. Population and Sample
3.3. Research Instrumentation
3.4. Data Gathering
3.5. Data Analysis
References (list of all the materials – such as books, journal, etc.)
Appendix (letter of permission, survey, etc.)
2
Discussion
What is research proposal?
A research proposal is a paper proposing a research project that the student-researcher is
interested and capable of doing. The first step in proposing a research is to propose a
research topic to the instructor or adviser. Typically, three (3) topics are needed or required
by the instructor or adviser. It is very important that the student-researcher will only
propose a topic of his/her research that he/she is interested, capable and data are available.
The student-researcher will present his/her proposed topics to his/her instructor. Upon
discussion and evaluation of the proposed topics, 1 topic will be approved that the
studentresearcher will pursue. Based on the approved topic, the student-researcher will
formulate working title of his/her research. It is still considered as working title because as
he/she goes on in his/her research, title maybe be revise or modified. Once the proposed
working title is approved, the student-researcher can proceed on doing his/her research.
Research title could compose of 5 to 15 words in length.
Research proposal is typically consisting of three chapters and sub-topics for each
chapter. Below is the outline and discussion:
Chapter 1 – INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
This is the first part of the research. It introduces what the research is all about by
generally giving the readers an overview of it, describing the problem situation from global,
national and local forces. It also justifies why there is a need for conducting this research.
3
Related references can also be cited here to justify the need for doing the research. Further,
a clinching statement that will relate the background of the research problem should be
included. Chapter 1 has the following sub-topics:

Theoretical Framework. This part discusses the theories which are useful in
conceptualizing the research. Theories from well-known personality that is related
to the present study should be cited here. This part may be omitted if there is no
theory related to the study. In the example research proposal entitled “Rhetorical
Persuasion in Advertisements: Its Psychological Impact on Millennial Consumers”,
the Cognitive Dissonance Theory (CDT) of Daiton & Zelley is related to it.

Conceptual Framework. This part identifies and discusses the variables related
to the problem. A schematic diagram of the research or research paradigm is part
of this. Research paradigm is a visual presentation of variables that interrelate with
one another as perceived by the student-researcher. There are different ways to
create research paradigm, such as fishbone diagram – to illustrate the causes of
specific event; input-process-output diagram – to illustrate the materials needed,
processes, and the output or result of process; and cause-and-effect diagram – to
illustrate how the independent variables can affect the dependent variables.

Statement of the Problem. This part presents the statement of the main problem
usually in declarative form in the first paragraph. The main problem should reflect
the title of the research and its objectives. It should be stated in a way that it is not
answerable by yes or no, rather, it should describe the current situations or reflect
relationships or differences between and among variables. This part also includes
4
the sub-problems or the research questions that are to be answered specifically. The
essential characteristic of a research question is that there should be some
information that can be collected in an attempt to answer it. Basically, the research
questions aim to come-up with description, or determine the differences, or find out
correlations between variables.

Objectives of the Study. This part states what the research is aiming to. What we
expect to achieve by a project. Research objectives are used as a statement of
purpose in a study that does not have a hypothesis.

Hypotheses. This part states tentative answers to research questions, but it is only
required for research questions that aims to find the relationship or difference. For
the research question that aims only to describe, such as demographic profile,
hypothesis is not required but objective instead.

Significance of the Study. This part should clearly state the importance or
usefulness of the research. Beneficiary of the research should be identified and how
they will be benefited, such as specific groups like community, school, respondents,
and researchers.

Definition of Terms. This part defines the important terms taken from the title and
statement of the problem. The terms should be arranged alphabetically should be
define according to how it was used in the study.
5
Chapter 2 – THE REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This part includes the related literatures (information from books, internet, etc.) and
studies (researches that are published and unpublished) from both foreign and local sources.
It is arranged and synthesized thematically to conform to the specific problems. It should
synthesize evidences from all the literatures reviewed to get an overall understanding of
the state of knowledge in the research problem. It is required that the reviewed literatures
are only those published within the last 10 years.
Chapter 3 – METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
This part will present the methods of the research to be use by the researcher to gather
necessary data. The methodology will include the following:

Research Design. This part discussed the methods used in the study, either
qualitative or quantitative or both. Research design such as descriptive should be
discuss also and why is it appropriate for the current study.

Population and Sample. This part describes the locale of the study (place where
the study was conducted) and the rationale of its choice. It should likewise describe
the research population and the sampling methods or techniques used in
determining the respondents or subjects of the study.

Research Instrumentation. This part should describe the instrument, what it
measured, how it was interpreted, to whom it was administered, and how it was
administered. A description of the instrument or parts of the instrument used is
included. The type of instruments used in the study should be mention too, such as
6
the rating scales, interview schedules, tally sheet, performance checklist,
documents and others. If the instrument used to gather data is made by the
researcher, the test conducted to ensure the instruments’ (usually the
questionnaires) validity and reliability should be stated. The level of reliability
(probability) should be stated. At least three (3) experts on the field being studied
should have evaluated the instrument.

Data Gathering. This part describes the procedure in gathering the data from the
respondents.

Data Analysis. This presents the statistical tools or treatment employed in the
analysis and interpretation of the collected data, such as SPSS. The tools used for
data analysis for each of the problems should be described.
References. This part list all materials used and reviewed by the researcher arranged
alphabetically using the APA (American Psychological Association) style of referencing.
Appendix. This part should contain letters and other form of communications, instruments
used, sample computations, and table and figures that maybe not be part of the main body
of the research.
7
Jubail University College – Male
Branch
Business Administration Department
Royal Commission of Jubail
Rhetorical Persuasion in Advertisements: Its Psychological Impact
on Millennial Consumers
A Requirement
for the course
BUS 321 (Business Research Methods)
Submitted by:
(ID number – Name – Specialization)
391000001 – Mohammed AlZharani – BUS
391000002 – Pening Garcia – ACCT
391000003 – Marilou Wang – LSCM
391000004 – Zuzomo Rai-rai – BUS
40111100 – Ahmed AlSaguob – MIS
2nd Semester, 2020-21
8
Submitted to:
Dr. Gilbert M. Talaue
Assistant Professor
Table of Contents
Page No.
Chapter 1 – INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY……. 1
Theoretical Framework / Conceptual Framework……………………………2
Statement of the Problem…………………………………………………….
Hypothesis / Objectives………………………………………………………
Significance of the Study…………………………………………………….
Definition of terms……………………………………………………………
Chapter 2 – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES ………………………….
Foreign and Local Literatures, Foreign and Local Studies……………………
Chapter 3 – METHODOLOGY……………………………………………………..
Research Design……………………………………………………………
Population
and Sample……………………………………………………..
Research Instrumentation…………………………………………………..
Data Gathering………………………………………………………………
Data Analysis………………………………………………………………..
References …………………………………………………………………………..
Appendix
Chapter 1
……………………………………………………………………………
THE INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Introduction and Background
Rhetorical persuasion is a tool that helps us formulate our thoughts so that we can
clearly present our position in a persuasive way. Persuasion is defined as the process by
9
which a person’s attitudes or behavior are, without force, influenced by communications
from other people. Persuasion is one of the most extensively researched areas in social
psychology.
According to psychologist Gordon Allport, social psychology uses scientific
methods “to understand and explain how the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of individuals
are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied the presence of other human beings.”
Essentially, social psychology is about understanding how each person’s individual
behavior is influenced by the social environment in which that behavior takes place
(Cherry, 2020). Social psychology is largely the study of the social situation. Our social
situations create social influence—the process through which other people change our
thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and through which we change theirs (Stangor, 2011). In
other words, studying the science of why people make choices will provides insights into
how messaging shapes people’s beliefs, attitudes and behaviors. Understanding the science
behind influence leads to more effective and lasting change. By studying how individuals
think, influence and relate to one another can lead to effectively persuading them.
In the study of Chamorro-Premuzic (2015), scientific meta-analyses show that we
are more likely to be persuaded when requests are congruent with our values, self-image,
and future goals. In other words, people are easily persuaded of that which they wanted to
do in the first place. To be an effective persuader, you cannot use the same techniques to
all people at all time. You have to customize the message that fits the demographics, interest
and values of the audience.
The Greek philosopher during the classical period, Aristotle, identified three
methods in which people can be persuaded: (1) ethos – an appeal based on credibility; (2)
10
pathos – an appeal based on emotions; and (3) logos – an appeal based on logic. As part of
the process of analyzing the audience, it is very important to consider these methods – or
what combination – will work best to persuade each person or group (Newman, 2015).
Aristotle’s rhetorical persuasion is a tool that helps us formulate our thoughts so that we
can clearly present our position in a persuasive way. The concepts of rhetorical persuasion
were first described by Aristotle in one of the first great books about titled “Rhetoric”,
which was written in the 4th century B.C (Expert Program Management, 2017).
One of the areas that greatly applies rhetorical persuasion is advertising.
Advertising, being a form of marketing communication, always persuades its consumers to
use the products and services negatively or positively. Advertisements are intended to draw
attention, alter manner and to rule our behavior. Advertisement has many forms some of
these are: social media advertising; native advertising; display advertising; print
advertising; broadcast advertising; and outdoor advertising.
According to Ashley (2016), advertisers who want persuade their customers to buy
their product applies the Aristotle’s rhetorical persuasion. An advertisement using pathos
will attempt to evoke an emotional response in the consumer. Sometimes, it is a positive
emotion such as happiness: an image of people enjoying drinking Pepsi. Other times,
advertisers will use negative emotions such as pain: a person having back problems after
buying the “wrong” mattress. Pathos can also include emotions such as fear and guilt:
images of a starving child persuading you to send money. An advertisement using logos
will give you the evidence and statistics you need to fully understand what the product
does. The logos of an advertisement will be the “straight facts” about the product: One
glass of Florida orange juice contains 75% of your daily Vitamin C needs. An
11
advertisement using ethos will try to convince you that the company is more reliable,
honest, and credible; therefore, you should buy its product. Ethos often involves statistics
from reliable experts, such as nine out of ten dentists agree that Crest is the better than any
other brand or Americas dieters choose Lean Cuisine.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the psychological impact of rhetorical
persuasion to the millennial consumers – born between 1997-1995 or under the age of 38
as of 2020. It will further aim to analyze how advertisement’s applied persuasion technique
can effectively or ineffectively persuade the respondents. Through this study, the research
will endeavor to understand how rhetorical persuasion correlates with other variables. As
the researcher investigate the psychological influence of rhetorical persuasion to the
respondents, it will provide a clear insight for those involved in communication and
advertising.
Theoretical Framework
Dainton & Zelley (2005) assumed that to persuade others to do something, an
outside source simply has to provide enough ammunition to change another’s attitudes or
beliefs. For example, public health campaigns often presume that the best way to get a
smoker to quit is to infuse the smoker with information about mortality rates, health
problems, and the social stigma associated with smoking in order to change the person’s
attitude about cigarettes. If the smoker’s attitude changes, surely, he or she will stop
smoking. Cognitive dissonance theory (CDT) explains that persuasion is not simply the
result of injecting new or refined beliefs into others. Instead, CDT predicts that influence
is often an intrapersonal event, occurring when incongruence between our attitudes and
12
behavior creates a tension that is resolved by altering either our beliefs or our behaviors,
thereby effecting a change. Dainton & Zelley’s model is important in this study, as it can
reveal how to persuade the target receivers of the message and influence their behavior.
Figure 1: Dainton & Zelley’s CDT Theory
Conceptual Framework
Various studies affirm rhetorical persuasion in advertising can psychologically influence
customers. The researches show that most of the customers are influenced by both
emotional and rational advertising appeals (Doan, 2017; Rahman & Pail ,2019).
Advertising explores the art of influencing human behavior to make certain purchase
decisions (Dekrey, 2020).
13
The present study aims to determine the psychological impact of rhetorical persuasion to
the millennial consumers. In order to determine the psychological impact of rhetorical
persuasion, it is deemed necessary to identify the millennials’ demographic profile, their
perceptions towards advertisement and their preferred rhetorical persuasion. It also aims to
identify if there any association of respondents’ demographic profile to their preferred …
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