SOLUTION: Mariam University Building a Virtual Machine Report

9781119657699 Linux Essentials Instructor Materials – Exercises
*** For this lab you can choose to use the virtual machines you build in the
M01 – Part 2: hands On Project – Building a Virtual Machine or you can use the
machines you built in AWS. If you choose the use the machines you built in
AWS you will use the Red Hat instance where the lab calls for Fedora and the
Ubuntu Instance where the lab calls for Mint***
Chapter 13: Creating Users and Groups
Exercise 13.a: Creating User Accounts (Objective 5.2)
Linux Distribution: Fedora 30 Workstation
User: User with super user privileges (must be able to successfully
use the sudo command), and password needed
Desktop Environment: GNOME 3 (GNOME Shell)
2. If it is not already, boot up your computer (or virtual machine) to start the
Fedora Linux distribution.
3. . If using AWS, connect with PuTTY as in previous labs and then type sudo
su at the command prompt to get the root user access.
4. Add a new account to the system, type: sudo useradd -m Ivy and press
Enter. When asked for a password, enter the account’s login password. The
useradd command creates new user accounts. This will add a new user
account called Ivy.
5. Type grep ^Ivy /etc/passwd and press Enter. You should Ivy’s record in
the /etc/passwd file.
6. Type tail -1 /etc/passwd and press Enter. Note that the -1 is not a
lowercase L, but the number one, 1. Do you see the same record for the new
user account as you did in the preceding step? Notice field #5 is empty.
7. Type sudo usermod -c “An IT Student” Ivy and press Enter. If asked for
a password, enter the account’s login password. The usermod command
modifies existing user accounts.
8. Type grep ^Ivy /etc/passwd and press Enter. The Full Name field (field #5)
should now have the words, An IT Student, in it.
9. Type sudo grep ^Ivy /etc/shadow and press Enter. If asked for a
password, enter the account’s login password. Because no password was
given the new account, Ivy, the Password field contains !!.
10. Come up with a good password for the Ivy account, reviewing Chapter
13’s “Selecting a Good Password” section, if needed.
11. Type sudo passwd Ivy and press Enter. If asked for a password, enter the
account’s login password.
12. At the New UNIX password prompt, type the password you determined in the
step 10 and press Enter.
Continued on the next page
Linux Essentials, 3rd Edition, Ancillary Materials by Richard Blum and Christine Bresnahan. Copyright 2019 SYBEX Inc.
All Rights Reserved. https://www.sybex.com
9781119657699 Linux Essentials Instructor Materials – Exercises
Exercise 13.a: Creating User Accounts (continued)
13. At the Retype new UNIX password prompt, retype the new password and
press Enter.
14. Type sudo grep ^Ivy /etc/shadow and press Enter. If asked for a
password, enter the account’s login password. You should now see field #2
contains letters and characters (a salted hash) for the password field.
15. Press Ctrl+Alt+F4 to access the tty4 terminal, and at the “login” prompt, type
Ivy and press Enter. At the “password” prompt, type the password you
selected in step #10 and press Enter. (If you have any problems logging into
the new account, go back to tty3 and make any needed changes to the
account).
16. Type whoami and press Enter. Are you logged in as Ivy?
17. Type logout and press Enter to log out of the Ivy account on the tty4
terminal.
18. Go back to the tty3 terminal (where you are logged in) by pressing
Ctrl+Alt+F3.
Exercise 13.b: Creating Groups (Objective 5.2)
Linux Distribution: Fedora 30 Workstation
User: User with super user privileges (must be able to successfully
use the sudo command), and password needed
Desktop Environment: GNOME 3 (GNOME Shell)
1. If it is not already, boot up your computer (or virtual machine) to start the
Fedora Linux distribution.
2. If not already logged in on tty3, log onto a user account that has super user
privileges by typing in the account’s username at the login prompt and
entering account’s password at the Password prompt.
3. This exercise assumes you have completed Exercise 13.a and the account
Ivy is still available for use. If not, please go back and complete Exercise
13.a.
4. Type sudo groupadd Students and press Enter. If asked for a password,
enter the account’s login password. The groupadd command adds new
groups to the /etc/group file.
5. Type grep ^Students /etc/group and press Enter. Record the group’s data
information for each field:
1) Group(aka Group Name): ________________
2) Password: ______________
3) GID: ____________
4) Users: ________________
Information for the Students group is displayed. Note: The password is an x
because the passwords are not stored in this file. Also note: The “Users” field
is blank, because no users have been assigned to this group yet.
Linux Essentials, 3rd Edition, Ancillary Materials by Richard Blum and Christine Bresnahan. Copyright 2019 SYBEX Inc.
All Rights Reserved. https://www.sybex.com
9781119657699 Linux Essentials Instructor Materials – Exercises
Exercise 13.b: Creating Groups (continued)
6. Type groups Ivy and press Enter. This should show that Ivy is NOT a
member of the Students group.
7. Type sudo usermod -aG Students Ivy and press Enter. If asked for a
password, enter the account’s login password. The usermod -aG
command adds the group Students to the user Ivy. (Note: If you did not use
the -a to add the new group, on some Linux distributions Ivy’s previous
groups would be wiped out and Ivy would ONLY belong to the group
Students. Thus, it’s a good idea to always use the -a option.)
8. Type groups Ivy and press Enter. This should show that Ivy is now a
member of the Students group.
9. Type grep ^Students /etc/group and press Enter. You should see that in
the /etc/group file, Ivy is listed as a member (last field) of the
Students group.
Exercise 13.c: Deleting Accounts and Groups (Objective 5.2)
Linux Distribution: Fedora 30 Workstation
User: User with super user privileges (must be able to successfully
use the sudo command), and password needed
Desktop Environment: GNOME 3 (GNOME Shell)
1. If it is not already, boot up your computer (or virtual machine) to start the
Fedora Linux distribution.
2. If not already logged in on tty3, log onto a user account that has super user
privileges by typing in the account’s username at the login prompt and
entering account’s password at the Password prompt.
3. This exercise assumes you have completed Exercise 13.a & b, and the
account Ivy, as well as the group Students, is still available for use. If
not, please go back and complete both Exercise 13.a and 13.b.
4. Type sudo groupdel Students and press Enter. If asked for a password,
enter the account’s login password. The groupdel command deletes
groups.
5. Type grep ^Students /etc/group and press Enter. You should see nothing
(just get a prompt back), because the group Students has been deleted.
6. Type groups Ivy and press Enter. This should show that Ivy is no longer a
member of the Students group.
7. To see when the Ivy user account was last logged into (or if the account is
still logged into by, typing last | grep Ivy and press Enter.
8. Double check that the Ivy account is not currently in use, by typing who
and pressing Enter.
If you DON’T see the Ivy user logged into the system, go on to the next step.
If DO see the Ivy user is logged into the system, then go to the terminal
where the account is logged in, and type exit to log out. And go back to tty3,
by pressing Ctrl+Alt+F3.
Continued on the next page
Linux Essentials, 3rd Edition, Ancillary Materials by Richard Blum and Christine Bresnahan. Copyright 2019 SYBEX Inc.
All Rights Reserved. https://www.sybex.com
9781119657699 Linux Essentials Instructor Materials – Exercises
Exercise 13.c: Deleting Accounts and Groups (continued)
9. This next command deletes the Ivy account. Type sudo userdel -r Ivy and
press Enter. If asked for a password, enter the account’s login password.
The -r option on the usedel command, will delete user account files,
such as /home/Ivy, as well as the account. If the -r option was not
included, the account would be deleted, but the user account files would
remain.
10. Type grep ^Ivy /etc/passwd and press Enter. You should not see the Ivy
account record. Since the Ivy account has been deleted, there is no longer
an account in the /etc/passwd file.
11. Type sudo grep ^Ivy /etc/shadow and press Enter. If asked for a
password, enter the account’s login password. You should not see the Ivy
account record. Since the Ivy account has been deleted, there is ALSO no
longer an account in the /etc/shadow file.
12. Type sudo poweroff and press Enter to shut down the system. If asked for a
password, enter the account’s login password.
Linux Essentials, 3rd Edition, Ancillary Materials by Richard Blum and Christine Bresnahan. Copyright 2019 SYBEX Inc.
All Rights Reserved. https://www.sybex.com

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