SOLUTION: SOC 106 Illinois State Social Construction of Race Multiple Choice Questions

SOC 106: INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY. PITLUCK. SPRING 2021.
EXAM #2 INSTRUCTIONS
The exam will begin at exactly 2:00 pm on Wednesday, March 3. If you begin late, you will
have less time to complete the exam. You should prepare for the exam as if it were a closed
book exam because the exam is timed. The exam is designed to test the DEPTH of your
knowledge and your ability to APPLY class ideas. I therefore do not recommend making
flashcards (or even worse, using other people’s flashcards) because flashcards are ineffective
for such questions. Although I caution against relying on them, during the exam you are
permitted to use your books and notes if you so desire.
Please honor the Redbird Honor Code and do not cheat. Cheating on this exam includes using
the internet or providing or receiving help during the exam. To keep the exam fair for everyone,
if you observe cheating please report it to Dr. P or the TAs.
The exam is on ReggieNet and to ensure an error-free experience, you should use a computer
rather than a phone or tablet. The exam is in the same place as the previous exam that you
took. Click on ‘exams’ in the left-hand column at 2:00 pm to begin the exam. If you begin late,
you lose time.
When taking a test on ReggieNet:






Do not use mobile devices. ISU recommends using Firefox, Safari or Internet
Explorer (not Chrome).
Open only one window and one browser.
Only use the testing screen. Do not click on tools such as Resources while taking a
test.
Do not log in to ReggieNet from multiple tabs, multiple browsers or multiple devices
(e.g. computer AND mobile devices).
Do not use your browser’s Back and Forward buttons.
Wait for a confirmation number. After clicking “Submit for Grading,” wait for the
submission screen that includes the confirmation number. If you close ReggieNet
before seeing this screen, your test may not be recorded.
If you have any issues while taking a test, please contact University Technology Support Center
at 309-438-HELP. Don’t call Dr. P or the TAs. You’ll be losing exam time talking to a nonspecialist.
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SOC 106: INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY. PITLUCK. SPRING 2021.
UNIT #2 STUDY GUIDE
All questions in Exam #2 will be based on this study guide. However, since the exam is openbook (yes, you may use your study guide), there is little point is asking questions identical to
those below. My advice is that if you answer the below questions thoroughly and in writing,
and memorize the logic behind your answers, you should easily and quickly be able to answer
the Exam #2 questions. If you plan on looking up the answer to many questions, you will run
out of time and perform poorly.
CLASS 5A: SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF REALITY; ROY, CHAPTER 1
Review all of Chapter 1. Pay particular attention to the below material:
1. What is the essentialist view of reality? What is the constructionist view of reality? Can you
describe an essentialist view AND a constructionist view of ‘intelligence’? By the exam, you
should be able to do the same exercise with race, gender, class and other social categories.
2. What is the postmodern view of reality? How is it similar and different to the social
constructionist view of reality?
3. What is the Thomas Principle? Can you use the example of the social construction of ‘race’
as an example of the Thomas Principle? By the exam, you should be able to give an
example of how the Thomas Principle applies to gender, and other social categories.
4. How is reality socially constructed? In your answer, you should be able to use the terms
reification, institutionalization, and path dependence. By the exam you should be able to
describe how race, gender and class are socially constructed using these three terms. Can
you pick a social construction and describe why it is reified, how it is institutionalized, and
examples of its path dependency?
CLASSES 4B, 5B, & 6B: SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF RACE; ROY, CHAPTER 4
Review all of Chapter 4. Pay particular attention to the below material:
5. In lecture 4b (February 3) we filled out a movie guide online and saw Race the Power of an
Illusion, Volume I. You should review the movie guide. If you missed the movie, you can
watch in the 4b February 3 lecture. Alternatively, you can access the movie and movie guide
in the Resources tab on ReggieNet.
6. According to Roy, what is his five-part definition of “race” in Anglo-European societies?
How did Dr. P modify it so that people who view races as real are not necessarily racists?
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SOC 106: INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY. PITLUCK. SPRING 2021.
7. What kind of evidence would you provide (from the lectures, book, and video clips) to
demonstrate that race is a social construction with no basis in biology?
8. Before racial categories were created, how did Europeans categorize other peoples? How
were these categories different than races?
9. According to Roy, what were the five factors that shaped the racial categorization of ‘black’
in Europe? (P.84-85). Can you briefly describe each?
10. If you missed watching the 20 minute video clip (5b Case Study in Resources on ReggieNet),
watch it now. In the early 1900s, immigrants to the US who wanted to become citizens
could be classified as either “white” or “black.” How did the US courts decide what “white”
meant?
11. The median Black and white household has a wide wealth gap. What facts does Dr. Pitluck
infer from the data that he presented?
12. How does Dr. P (or the movie excerpt) explain the large gap in wealth between black and
white households? If you missed the movie you can see it in the 6b (Feb 17) recorded
lecture.
13. Describe Roy’s argument for why he supports affirmative action instead of race-blind
policies. According to Roy, what would a “multicultural” non-racial society look like?
CLASS 7A: THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF GENDER; ROY, CHAPTER 5
Review all of Chapter 5. Pay particular attention to the below material:
14. What is Roy’s definition of sex? What is Roy’s definition of gender as a noun? What is Roy’s
definition of gender as a verb? What is gender dimorphism?
15. What historical and contemporary evidence does Roy provide to prove that some societies
are not structured by gender?
16. What historical and contemporary evidence does Roy provide to prove that gender
dimorphism is factually incorrect (in other words, that some societies have more than one
gender)?
17. According to Roy, describe the three historical stages of masculinity in the United States
before the 21st century.
18. What does Dr. P mean when he says that social movements shape social constructions?
What examples does he give of corporations, governments, and social movements
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SOC 106: INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY. PITLUCK. SPRING 2021.
intentionally institutionalizing new genders? What additional examples (of gender, race or
another category) can you think of in which social movements have institutionalized new
social constructions?
CLASS 8A: THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF CLASS AND MARKETS; ROY, CHAPTER 6
Review all of Chapter 6. Pay particular attention to the below material:
19. What is the essentialist perspective of class? What is the social constructionist perspective
of class?
20. What is Roy’s definition of class? What are some examples of membership in a higher class
providing more benefits for less work? What are some examples of membership in a lower
class providing less benefits for more work?
21. How do people in putatively “meritocratic” societies use social institutions to perpetuate
class advantages across generations? For example, you may wish to consider educational,
medical, and religious institutions, as well as property rights.
22. According to Dr. P, what is the definition of property rights? Why do changes in property
rights or property systems (see Roy, pages 172-3) shape what class you end up in? Can you
provide some examples? How can changing property rights explain wealth inequality in the
United States?
LARGER QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
A. Can you imagine an Illinois in which race was not an important social force in peoples’
lives? What about gender? What about class? Why are some of these social
constructions more difficult to change than others? In expressing your opinion, use the
terms reification, institutionalization, and path dependence.
B. Gender categories are transforming quickly in the United States—an increasing number
of people are identifying as non-binary, gender fluid, or with a gender other than “men”
and “women.” In your observations, are new gender ascriptions changing quickly as
well? What are the social consequences of these changes?
C. Are sexual categories (male/female) also socially constructed? Or are they biological, as
biological determinists would argue? What evidence do you find most convincing to
defend your position?
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SOC 106: INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY. PITLUCK. SPRING 2021.
D. How have social forces—particularly class—helped you or hindered you from getting
into Illinois State University?
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