SOLUTION: SOC 3321 Idaho State University Role of Modern Parenting Discussion

Data Snapshot 2018:
Father Involvement
Fathers—and father-like figures—play an important role in the lives of children. The time fathers spend engaged in activities with
their children and the financial supports they help provide are linked to the health and wellbeing of children at all ages.i This is true
whether a father lives with his child or not. Notably, fathers today are spending more time than in the past with their children.ii
Data on multiple domains of father involvement are shown for resident and non-resident fathers (see Data Box, page 15), including:
• Taking the child on outings, errands, and to and from activities and appointments.
• Eating dinner with the child and either reading and playing with the child (ages 0-4) or being aware of the activities and
friends of the child (aged 5-18).
• Engaging in physical affection, praise, or discipline.
• Being engaged in age-appropriate caregiving activities.
Because the type of engagement with a child varies by age, we report separately on involvement with children ages 0 to 4 years and
involvement with children ages 5 to 18 years. For non-resident fathers, we provide additional information on time spent with their
child, their level of satisfaction with that time, and the extent to which they contribute financially to their child (including through
formal child support payments).
Highlights
• Resident fathers are very engaged in the lives of their children. For example, during the month prior to the survey:
o Most resident fathers reported spending quality time with their children at least several times per week—eating
and playing with them (aged 0-4) and helping them with homework (aged 5-18).
o Most resident fathers of children under age 5 engaged in important caregiving activities—such as feeding and
putting them to bed. However, one-quarter of fathers with a young child reported never reading to their child.
o Importantly, most resident fathers showed affection to their children every day.
• Many non-resident fathers are also positively engaged in the lives of their children. For example:
o The majority of non-resident fathers with young children (aged 0-4), and a large minority (40 percent) with older
children (aged 5-18), showed physical affection to their child several times a week or more.
o A large minority of non-resident fathers reported eating dinner with their child several times a week or more.
• However, roughly one-third of non-resident fathers reported not reading to, eating dinner with, or putting their young child
(aged 0-4) to bed at all in the previous four weeks. Additionally:
o One-fifth reported not eating dinner with their older child (aged 5-18) and not knowing about their friends or
activities.
o More than half reported that they saw or spent the night with their child less than once a week, regardless of age.
o About six in ten reported being dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with how often they saw their child.
• Most non-resident fathers—84 percent—contributed some amount of child support to their child in the past year on a
regular basis, although the amounts varied widely.
NRFC Program Spotlight
Spotlight on Children’s Institute and Project Fatherhood
Table of Contents
Fathers of children aged 0-4
3
Outings, errands, and travel to appointments
3
Playing, reading, and eating dinner
4
Physical affection, praise, and discipline
5
Feeding, bathing, changing, and putting to bed
6
Fathers of children aged 5-18
7
Outings, errands, and travel to activities and appointments
7
Physical affection, praise, and discipline
8
Dinner and homework
9
Knowledge about friends and activities
Child visitation among non-resident fathers
10
11
Frequency of visitation with child
11
Satisfaction of non-resident fathers with frequency of visits with their child
12
Child Support
13
Non-resident fathers’ financial contributions to child
13
Amount of financial contributions to child
14
Data Box
www.fatherhood.gov
15
Page 2 of 15
NRFC Program Spotlight
Spotlight on Children’s Institute and Project Fatherhood
Fathers of children aged 0-4
Outings, errands, and travel to appointments
Figure 1 provides detail on how often resident and non-resident1 fathers reported taking their young child on outings (e.g.,
museums, zoos, movies, or playground), errands (e.g., going to the grocery store, post office, or bank), and to the doctor or other
appointments in the past four weeks. Responses range from never doing the activity with the child to doing it every day.
Figure 1. Father reports of taking children aged 0-4 on outings, errands, and to appointments
in past four weeks, by resident status, 2014
Resident
Non-resident
100%
11%
18%
4%
7%
14%
14%
2%
26%
80%
20%
36%
38%
60%
0.3%
3%
3%
3%
36%
34%
23%
13%
40%
33%
27%
25%
64%
50%
20%
0%
8%
7%
11%
12%
Outings
Errands
Not at all
36%
22%
Child’s
Appointments
Less than once a week
About once a week
Outings
Errands
Several times per week
Child’s
Appointments
Every day
Source: Child Trends analyses of the 2013-2015 National Survey of Family Growth. Includes resident (n=790) and non-resident
(n=103) fathers whose youngest/only child was aged 0-4. Notes: Data are weighted. Due to rounding, some columns do not add
up to 100 percent.
Resident fathers


During the previous four weeks, most resident fathers (about 80 percent) reported taking their child on outings or errands
at least once a week. Roughly one in ten (11% and 12%) never took the child on outings or errands.
Half of resident fathers reported they had not taken their child to the doctor or other kind of appointment in the past four
weeks.
Non-resident fathers

During the previous four weeks, more than half of non-resident fathers reported taking their child on outings or errands at
least once a week. Twenty-two percent reported not taking their child on any outings and 36 percent reported not taking
them on any errands.
1
Non-resident fathers who reported they had not seen their child in the last 4 weeks were not asked about their involvement with their child, and therefore are not
included in Figures 1-8.
www.fatherhood.gov
Page 3 of 15
Data Snapshot 2018
Father Involvement

Nearly two-thirds of non-resident fathers (64 percent) reported they had not taken their child to the doctor or other kind of
appointment in the past four weeks.
Playing, reading, and eating dinner
Figure 2 shows how often resident and non-resident fathers reported playing with, reading to, and eating dinner with their young
child in the past four weeks. Responses range from never doing the activity with the child to doing it every day.
Figure 2. Father reports of playing, reading, and eating dinner with child aged 0-4
in past four weeks, by resident status, 2014
Resident
Non-resident
100%
21%
21%
80%
12%
21%
71%
60%
30%
69%
34%
9%
36%
17%
13%
14%
16%
40%
16%
13%
9%
20%
25%
0%
Played
Not at all
2%
1%
1%
21%
3%
2%
5%
24%
Read
Ate dinner
Less than once a week
About once a week
21%
36%
29%
8%
Played
Read
Several times per week
Ate dinner
Every day
Source: Child Trends analyses of the 2013-2015 National Survey of Family Growth. Includes resident (n=791) and non-resident
(n=102) fathers whose youngest/only child was aged 0-4. Notes: Data are weighted. Due to rounding, some columns do not add
up to 100 percent.
Resident fathers


The vast majority of resident fathers (90 percent or more) reported playing with and eating dinner with their child every
day or several times a week.
Although 51 percent of resident fathers reported reading with their child either every day or several times a week, 24
percent had not read to their child at all in the previous four weeks.
Non-resident fathers


Many non-resident fathers (over 40 percent) reported playing with or eating dinner with their child several times a week or
more, even though they do not live with them.
o However, roughly four in 10 fathers ate dinner with their child less than once a week or not at all, while three in
ten played with their child less than once a week or not at all.
Although 33 percent reported reading with their child either every day or several times a week, 36 percent had not read to
their child at all in the previous four weeks.
www.fatherhood.gov
Page 4 of 15
Data Snapshot 2018
Father Involvement
Physical affection, praise, and discipline
Figure 3 shows how often resident and non-resident fathers reported showing physical affection to, praising, and disciplining
their young child in the past four weeks. Responses range from never doing the activity with the child to doing it every day.
Figure 3. Father reports of physical affection, praise, and discipline of child aged 0-4
in past four weeks, by resident status, 2014
Resident
Non-resident
100%
7%
8%
22%
19%
80%
28%
78%
92%
13%
14%
14%
60%
1%
18%
42%
33%
10%
11%
40%
20%
0.4%
14% 3%
2%
0.2%
7%
3%
0.7%
0%
Showed
physical
affection
Not at all
Praised
43%
Less than once a week
16%
23%
4%
Disciplined
About once a week
Showed
physical
affection
64%
12%
Praised
Several times per week
Disciplined
Every day
Source: Child Trends analyses of the 2013-2015 National Survey of Family Growth. Includes resident (n=792) and non-resident
(n=103) fathers whose youngest/only child was aged 0-4. Notes: Data are weighted. Due to rounding, some columns may not
add to 100 percent.
Resident fathers


Resident fathers reported being very affectionate with their child.
o Nine in ten reported showing physical affection every day, while more than three-quarters reported praising their
child every day.
Twenty-six percent of resident fathers reported disciplining their child more than once a week, while 43 percent had not
disciplined their child at all in the previous four weeks.
Non-resident fathers


Most non-resident fathers (more than 60 percent) showed physical affection to or praised their child frequently (several
times a week or more) even though they did not live with them.
Nine percent of non-resident fathers reported disciplining their child more than once a week, while 64 percent had not
disciplined their child at all in the previous four weeks.
www.fatherhood.gov
Page 5 of 15
Data Snapshot 2018
Father Involvement
Feeding, bathing, changing, and putting to bed
Figure 4 shows how often resident and non-resident fathers of a young child reported feeding their child, bathing their child,
changing their child’s diapers or helping their child use the toilet, and putting their child to bed in the past four weeks. Responses
range from never doing the activity with the child to doing it every day.
Figure 4. Father reports of feeding, bathing, changing, and putting child aged 0-4 to bed
in past four weeks, by resident status, 2014
Resident
Non-resident
100%
14%
20%
80%
47%
55%
28%
35%
67%
38%
60%
40%
13%
17%
20%
5%
9%
0%
Fed
Not at all
10%
3% 19%
Bathed
10%
13%
10%
29%
34%
16%
12%
11%
20%
34%
24%
6%
11%
17%
20%
3%
13%
7%
8%
3%
Changed Put to bed
diapers
Less than once a week
About once a week
40%
25%
10%
34%
11%
Fed
Bathed
Changed Put to bed
diapers
Several times per week
Every day
Source: Child Trends analyses of the 2013-2015 National Survey of Family Growth. Includes resident (n=792) and non-resident
(n=103) fathers whose youngest/only child was aged 0-4. Notes: “Changed diapers” includes helping child on the toilet. Data are
weighted. Due to rounding, some columns may not add to 100 percent.
Resident fathers


More than three-quarters of resident fathers reported being very engaged in some of the caretaking activities for their
young children during the previous four weeks.
o Eighty-four percent indicated they had fed their child every day or several times a week; 79 percent had changed
their child’s diapers or helped them with the toilet every day or several times a week; and 81 percent reported
putting their child to bed every day or several times a week.
Fifty-eight percent of resident fathers reported bathing their child more than once a week, although 19 percent had not
done so at all in the previous four weeks.
Non-resident fathers


Many non-resident fathers also reported being very engaged in some of the caretaking activities for their young children.
o In the last four weeks, 49 percent indicated they had fed their child every day or several times a week; 42 percent
had changed their child’s diapers or helped them with the toilet every day or several times a week; and 44
percent reported putting their child to bed every day or several times a week.
Thirty-eight percent of non-resident fathers reported bathing their child more than once a week, although 40 percent had
not done so at all in the previous four weeks.
www.fatherhood.gov
Page 6 of 15
Data Snapshot 2018
Father Involvement
Fathers of children aged 5-18
Outings, errands, and travel to activities and appointments
Figure 5 shows how often resident and non-resident fathers reported taking their school-aged child on outings (e.g., to
museums, zoos, movies, or the playground), errands (e.g., going to the grocery store, post office, or bank), and to activities and
appointments in the past four weeks. Responses range from never doing the activity with the child to doing it every day.
Figure 5. Father reports of taking child aged 5-18 on outings, errands, and to activities and appointments
in past four weeks, by resident status, 2014
Resident
Non-resident
1%
2%
100%
9%
13%
15%
4%
1%
0.4%
2%
4%
8%
16%
17%
31%
23%
24%
32%
27%
28%
31%
Outings
Errands
16%
23%
80%
39%
45%
60%
38%
13%
20%
40%
37%
24%
20%
55%
13%
0%
8%
7%
9%
9%
14%
Outings
Errands
Child’s
activities
Not at all
79%
21%
Less than once a week
Child’s
appt.
About once a week
42%
Child’s
activities
Several times per week
Child’s
appt.
Every day
Source: Child Trends analyses of the 2013-2015 National Survey of Family Growth. Includes resident (n=550) and non-resident
(n=190) fathers whose youngest/only child was aged 5-18. Notes: Data are weighted. Due to rounding, some columns may not
add to 100 percent.
Resident fathers


Most resident fathers (74 percent or more) reported taking their school-aged child on outings, errands, or to activities at
least once a week during the previous four weeks. Forty-eight percent or more had done so several times a week.
Fifty-five percent of resident fathers had not taken their child to any appointments in the past four weeks, and another 31
percent had done so less than once a week.
Non-resident fathers


Approximately 40 percent of non-resident fathers reported taking their school-aged child on outings, errands, or to
activities at least once a week during the previous four weeks. Seventeen percent or more had done so several times a
week.
Almost 80 percent of non-resident fathers had not taken their child to any appointments in the past four weeks, and
another 16 percent had done so less than once a week.
www.fatherhood.gov
Page 7 of 15
Data Snapshot 2018
Father Involvement
Physical affection, praise, and discipline
Figure 6 shows how often resident and non-resident fathers reported showing affection to, praising, or disciplining their schoolaged child in the past four weeks. Responses range from never doing the activity with the child to doing it every day.
Figure 6. Father reports of physical affection, praise, and discipline of child aged 5-18
in past four weeks, by resident status, 2014
Resident
Non-resident
1%
3%
100%
12%
15%
15%
80%
57%
22%
30%
27%
20%
76%
60%
8%
2%
24%
35%
18%
40%
64%
33%
20%
16%
0%
Showed
physical
affection
Not at all
3%
1%
5% 8%
Praised
24%
1%
0.5%
33%
Disciplined
Less than once a week
About once a week
22%
14%
10%
Showed
physical
affection
Praised
Several times per week
Disciplined
Every day
Source: Child Trends analyses of the 2013-2015 National Survey of Family Growth. Includes resident (n=550) and non-resident
(n=190) fathers whose youngest/only child was aged 5-18. Notes: Data are weighted. Due to rounding, some columns may not
add to 100 percent.
Resident fathers


Resident fathers reported very high levels of positive engagement with their school-aged child.
o Ninety percent or more reported showing physical affection to their child or praising their child either every day or
several times per week. Most reported doing so every day.
Eighteen percent of resident fathers reported disciplining their school-aged child more than once a week, while 33 percent
had not disciplined their child at all in the previous four weeks.
Non-resident fathers


Many non-resident fathers also reported showing physical affection to their school-aged child or praising them quite
frequently during the previous four weeks.
o Half reported praising their child every day or several times a week, while over 40 percent reported showing
physical affection to their child that often.
o However, a substantial minority reported they had shown little or no physical affection to the child (38%) and
given little or no praise to the child (32%).
Only 3 percent of non-resident fathers reported disciplining their school-aged child more than once a week, while 64
percent had not disciplined their child at all in the previous four weeks.
www.fatherhood.gov
Page 8 of 15
Data Snapshot 2018
Father Involvement
Dinner and homework
Figure 7 shows how often resident and non-resident fathers reported eating dinner with their school-aged child or helping their
child with homework in the past four weeks. Responses range from never doing the activity with the child to doing it every day.
Figure 7. Father reports of eating dinner with child aged 5-18 and helping them with homework
in past four weeks, by resident status, 2014
Resident
Non-resident
3%
100%
6%
24%
26%
80%
14%
12%
54%
60%
40%
35%
33%
19%
13%
32%
10%
58%
7%
20%
6%
0%
2%
3%
Ate dinner
Not at all
23%
21%
Helped with
homework
Ate dinner
Less than once a week
About once a week
Several times per week
Helped with
homework
Every day
Source: Child Trends analyses of the 2013-2015 National Survey of Family Growth. Includes resident (n=550) and non-resident
(n=190) fathers whose youngest/only child was aged 5-18. Notes: Data are weighted. Due to rounding, some columns may not
add to 100 percent.
Resident fathers


Almost 90 percent of resident fathers reported they had eaten dinner with their school-aged child either every day or
several times a week during the previous four weeks.
Almost 60 percent of resident fathers reported they had helped their school-aged child with homework either every day or
several times a week during the previous four weeks.
o Twenty-three percent of resident fathers had not helped their child with homework at all in the past four weeks.
Non-resident fathers


Twenty-nine percent of non-resident fathers reported they had eaten dinner with their school-aged child either every day
or several times a week during the previous four weeks.
o Twenty-one percent had not eaten dinner with their child at all, and 32 percent had done so less than once a
week.
Twenty percent of non-resident fathers reported they had helped their school-aged child with homework either every day
or several times a week during the previous four weeks.
o Fifty-eight percent had not helped their child with homework at all in the past four weeks.
www.fatherhood.gov
Page 9 of 15
Data Snapshot 2018
Father Involvement
Knowledge about friends and activities
Figure 8 shows resident and non-resident fathers’ reported knowledge of their school-aged child’s friends and what the child
does when the child is not at home. Responses range from knowing nothing to knowing everything.
Figure 8. Father reports of knowl …
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