SOLUTION: UArizona Global Campus Healthcare in Prisons Literature Review

Healthcare in Prisons and Asylums
Student Name
Professor Name
Healthcare in Prisons and Asylums
Prisons and asylums are essential in all societies due to the need to maintain law and
order. Most prisoners have a life after prison hence the need to protect their mental and physical
health to ensure that they can manage to live a good life after their imprisonment. The research
will explain the relevance of research question stated in the research.
The Research Question
What are the strategies and policies set to ensure quality health care in Prisons and
The Relevance of the Research Question to the Topic
The Research Question aims to cover the debate regarding the healthcare of inmates and
prisoners since there have been various gaps in prisoners’ healthcare. Prisoners have a right to
health care just like other citizens, hence the need to review what the governments have done to
ensure inmates’ health is not on the verge. The Research question “What are the strategies and
policies set to ensure quality health care and in Prisons and Asylums?” There is a need for the
government to ensure that the number of years in imprisonment relates to the offence committed
to ensuring that inmates receive justice sentences (Rekh & Jain, 2019). There is a need for
lawmakers to ensure that policies and practices in prisons. The research question aims at getting
answers regarding the changes in The U.S sentencing laws that sought to give prisoners quality
healthcare at the jails. One of the research methods would be through face-to-face interviews
with the prison administration and lawyers specializing in prisoners’ medical health. Interviewing
former inmates would make it easier to understand the health challenges faced while at the
prisons and asylums.
The Relevance of the Research Question to the MPA course
The research question “What are the strategies and policies set to ensure quality health
care and in Prisons and Asylums?” has various relation to MPA curriculum that handles different
topics” The research question aims to understand the organizational theory hence the need to
understand the health challenges faced by prisoners. The government requires to ensure specific
strategies that ensure that the prison administrators are responsible for the prisoners’ health. The
research would be adequate by working closely with employees in the health department to
understand how they dealt with previous infectious diseases in the prisons.
The research question aims to understand how the prison organization is set to ensure that
inmates get medical attention in medical emergencies and whether there are specific nurses
deployed to assist in cases of urgency. Asking the prison administration on how they have ever
handled previous medical issues would be essential (Rothschild, n.d). The research question
requires understanding whether there have ever been cases of violation of prison and inmates’
health rights violated and how the prison management responds to such issues. The research
question would investigate various inequities of the prisoners while at prisons. There is a need to
understand the instances of deaths in prisons and the outcomes for multiple lawsuits regarding
inmates’ deaths in prisons. There is a need for the prison organization to outline the
organizational structures that ensure prisoners’ mental health is handled. The research question is
based on the use of organizational theory to research how prisoners’ healthcare problems are
addressed. There is a need to understand the prison organization’s perception on, aiding
prisoners’ to die (Messinger, 2019). Health workers in prison would help understand some of the
reasons why prisoners would beg for death and whether the explanations have a relation to the
jails’ organization. The research question needs to elevate whether how the prison operation is
outlined leads to health issues in prisons and asylums.
Leadership ethics involves adopting ethical leadership consideration, honesty, charism,
and fairness when conducting a particular organization’s roles. The research question outlined is
connected to leadership ethics, specifically in prison (Jacobi, 2005). Prisoners need to receive
ethical treatment in the correct procedures to ensure ethical consideration, especially by
correctional officers who directly relate with the prison inmates. Some prisoner’s subjection to
bad health conditions lead to suicide cases and others request aid in dying hence the need to
research whether the government supports such cruelty and the policies set to prevent such
issues. Lack of ethics when dealing with prisoners might lead to mental illness for prisoners in
their life after imprisonment. It is unethical for prisons to be set free when they are mentality
sick, instead aiding the prisoners to correct their mistakes have happy and free lives after
imprisonment. The research method best appropriate to understand the ethics in leadership in
prison would be interviewing the correctional officers and the prison administrators on some of
the practices they think are unethical and affect the prisoners’ health (Huang et., 2017). There
would be a need to interview the inmates on some of the ways in which they deal their leaders
practice unfair treatment and to what level the prisoners feel their health are at risk while at
prison. The highly populated prisons can contribute to high numbers of health risks and death
associated with prisoners, hence the research aims to understand the policies set and applied in
prison to ensure ethics in prison leadership and combat the prisoners’ health issues.
Huang, E., Cauley, J., & Wagner, J. (2017). Barred from better medicine? Reexamining
regulatory barriers to the inclusion of prisoners in research. Journal of Law and the
Jacobi, J. (2005). Prison Health, Public Health: Obligations and Opportunities. American Journal
of Law & Medicine
Messinger, K. (2019). Death with Dignity for The Seemingly Undignified: Denial of Aid in
Dying in Prison. The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology
Rekh, K., & Jain, R. (2019). A Qualitative Analysis of Restorative Practices in Prisons for
Wellbeing and Health Laws. International Institute for Restorative Practices Europe
Conference, Kortrijk, Belgium
Rothschild, M. (n.d). Cruel and Unusual Prison Healthcare: A Look at The Arizona Class Action
Litigation of Parsons V. Ryan and Systemic Deficiencies of Private Health Services in
Prison. Arizona Law Review
Healthcare in Prisons and Asylums
Healthcare in Prisons and Asylums: An Examination of Government Policies Related to the
Quality of Care at These Institutions
Problem Area
Rekh & Jain (2019) start their research by indicating that no society can be free from its
flaws. This is why prisons exist within communities as correctional facilities to ensure the
maintenance of law and order. However, in recent days, there has been quite some debate regarding
the issue of healthcare extended to prisoners. It is essential to understand that prisoners are also
human beings, just like free citizens. Therefore, they may face various healthcare needs ranging
from the physical to the mental. On the physical, most prisoners will receive treatment, although
it is not the same level as free citizens would receive, bringing in healthcare administration bias.
The mental health front presents the biggest and most persistent challenge in the extension of
healthcare to prisoners. While prisoners come into the prison with underlying mental health
conditions, it is essential to acknowledge the role that the prisons’ social world plays in the
deterioration of mental health (Rekh & Jain, 2019). Prisoners often suffer the burden of first being
in prison, grappling with the guilt of their crimes, alienation from society and family, possible
harassment, and poor prison conditions, among others that are detrimental to the prisoners’ overall
Jacobi (2005) notes that most of the imprisoned individuals will come from poor
backgrounds, uneducated and minority groups. Due to their poor living conditions, they may come
to the prisons with chronic conditions and mental illnesses. The American prison system seems to
care less about this, with no known system to ensure that there is fair treatment extended to these
individuals. This then brings in the question of whether poor healthcare is meant to be part of the
prisoners’ punishment for their wrongdoing. In the real sense, if we were to say that, it would be
unfair. The individuals are already paying for the crime they committed by being in jail. Therefore,
extending their punishment further would serve as an infringement of their rights.
Importance of the Topic
All the problems above reflect a society where there is inequality in the administration of
healthcare among the prisoner population compared to free citizens, which the nation should strive
to eliminate. The imbalance can further be seen from the research participation laws, such as
banning prisoners in behavioral and biomedical research (Huang et al., 2017). Such regulations by
the government prevent the extension of equal healthcare services. Although there is the
acknowledgment that true equality in healthcare extension would take time, such backward
policies must be dealt with as early as now to show effort on the government’s side to make this
Specific Research Hypothesis
The good news is that there have already been cases challenging the status quo to bring
better healthcare to our prisons. One of these cases is the Parsons v Ryan. The Arizona Department
of Corrections was sued for the lack of indifference to the prisoners’ healthcare needs, leading to
deaths and other adverse effects on the prisoners (Rothschild, n.d). The fact that this was a class
action suit shows that the United States prisoners, courts, and citizens, in general, are starting to
realize the unfair practices. The other question that brings in cases is on assisted suicide for
prisoners. Messinger (2019) notes that there has been no case that the U.S Supreme Court has ruled
on assisted suicide for prisoners. However, landmark cases such as Washington v Glucksberg gave
people the right to assisted dying. This may be a conflict put in prisoners’ context, given that their
constitutional right to liberty has already been withdrawn. Prisoners have the right to healthcare,
but it is not clear where the law stands on their right to assisted suicide. With all these elements
taken into account, this paper explores government policies related to the quality of care in prisons
of the United States.
Death with dignity case study
According to Messinger, American society has elicited vectored reactions towards suicide
and the aid in dying. The police custody and correctional facilities’ concerns are meant to initiate
a corrective measure to the prisoners. However, this has not been the case since people get
unhealthy ventures and other psychological tortures that make them beg for death. Some prisoners
see the end as a way of resting from the harsh conditions subjected to them (Messinger, K., 2019).
The religious and philosophical understanding of death puts suicide as an immoral condemnation.
Westernization of suicide is against the Greek knowledge of Messenian prisoners. Historically,
suicide is forbidden. The stems of opposition in the evolution of Judeo-Christian ideology
substantiate the difference between death and suicide. Death is unwarranted, while suicide is
assisted or self-affiliated. Suicide will warrant an individual’s realism since they can see it coming,
and at times they can absorb the effects thereof.
Messinger posits that the fundamental vector of suicide in the prison areas is against human
rights. People are entitled to the right to living. The prisoners are among the mass of humanity that
is covered with such an assurance. Having medical technology that assists someone to commit
suicide is wrong according to the right of living (Messinger, K., 2019). A medical practitioner is
supposed to try the best available notations that can be achieved to save a prisoner’s life. According
to the ANA code of ethics, a healthcare ontology should ensure that life can be supported as long
as possible to prolong life. Having the autonomy to end a prisoners’ life makes their affiliates and
dependents look miserable. Prisons should advocate for longevity and evolve the reasoning that
ending a life is an option towards succeeding in evading worldly circumstances.
Prison Health, Public Health case study
Prisons have remained to be deeply affected health-wise. In America alone, there are two
million prisoners. The facilities have chromed and packed to the fullest. Some are even
overpopulated. According to John, most of the prisoners are poor, uneducated, and sick. This is
the reason behind some of them being closed behind cells (Jacobi, J., 2005). When such people
are massed up together, their basic ideology is below the average health matrix, causing adverse
healthcare effects. Such healthcare effects include; chronic conditions, an increase in mental
illnesses, increase in sexually transmitted diseases, among other infectious diseases. With
overpopulation, the healthcare support system is caught between caring for the prisoners and the
rest of the population. Ethical standards of better healthcare dictate that prisoners’ constitutional
rights must ensure there are decent conditions in prison. However, the judicial systems have put
such situations in the hanging lines by failing to implement requirements deemed fit for such
reforms to take the route by healthcare ideologies.
Humanitarian support supplements every individual’s rights, and it also distributes their
efforts to access better healthcare no matter the vicinity guiding them. The powers within
American soil in ambiances regarded as prison areas should be driven by reducing fellow-feeling.
Fellow-feeling diffuses the health reforms and retracts the evil healthcare motives in the prisons
(Jacobi, J., 2005). The selfish reasons harm communities from mismanagement of prison
healthcare and maintenance of mental illnesses. The inability to safeguard the prisoners makes
them affect other civilians once their stay in prisons expires. Once they mingle and join the rest of
the population, they contribute to various infections such as STIs, tuberculosis among other
infectious diseases. So attention in terms of better healthcare should be practiced within the prison
to reduce infections once they join their family members.
Cruel and unusual prison healthcare
According to Molly Rothschild, health services in the prison vicinity sometimes seem fatal
to the prisoners’ general healthcare, more so in Arizona. When a prisoner such as Ferdinand Dix
reported symptoms of lung cancer to the Arizona Department of Corrections, he was ignored. After
that, he (Ferdinand) developed further complications such as enlarged liver, enlarged stomach, and
tumor-infested his liver (Rothschild, n.d). He was missed, and the correctional facility ignored his
complaints even when the illness was showing up. The prison maintenance team ignored his
complaints until it was too late. The prisoner died afterward due to being ignored. Prisoners need
to be heard when it comes to healthcare complaints. Healthcare ethics dictate that every complaint
should be tabled and dealt with promptly. According to healthcare ethics, no disease is mild. Each
infection or complaint affiliated with a healthcare situation is dealt with accordingly because it can
lead to an untimely death.
Molly posits that the Arizona prisons affected more people with ignorance to affiliated
healthcare claims. The Parsons versus Ryan’s case is one of the issues that led to facial structures,
and the delay of medical care made him develop partial paralysis in his face. The stiffness was due
to over sedation by the oral surgeon. Prisoners are not slaves of the state. It goes beyond human
rights and healthcare ethics to lose a life that could be saved by the efficient transformation
between the prison departments and the healthcare vicinities (Rothschild, n.d). It is
unconstitutional for a prisoner to b subjected to shortage or late healthcare undertaking because
the departmental heads are not swift in ensuring health standards and its courses are devolved. The
federal law is clear, the civic procedures must be followed, and consistency must be shown to all
prisoners. Despite their fall-out into the prison doors do not mean any of their rights are reduced
in any manner. They are subjected to freedom of expression and timely provision of healthcare
when it is needed.
Reexamining regulatory barriers
Healthcare needs utmost precision at all times to execute the requirements and save lives.
President Barack Obama initiated the plans that would revolutionize medicine. The initiative
would cater to social realities and exacerbate health disparities. The US has a very populated prison
system and the highest incarceration rates in the globe. Racial differences and ethnic inequality
bring incarceration (Huang et al., 2017). Involving prisoners in biomedical researches has led to
prescriptive regulations since 1978. Still, the healthcare sector’s overreaction has tried to restore
sanity in using human beings more so the prisoner-like samples. Prisoners were injected with
various models and exposed to others in all sorts of horrible studies with the aim of understanding
medications of cholera, malaria, gonorrhea, influenza, and pellagra. The radiations caused by such
testing in the prison vicinity led to massive outbreaks and deaths thereof. For non-prisoners, they
refused to be used as samples, but it was a forced paradigm for prisoners.
Each human life is precious, and drugs’ toxicity must be told to anyone who wants to
participate in such medical research. In 1972, over 90% of drug toxicity was subjected to prisoners.
The dangers of such exploitations are supposed to be done away with. Those individuals who are
willing to participate should be told of the research’s consequences, and if they are eager to be used
as samples, they should be signed appropriately (Huang et al., 2017). The use of prisoners brings
instability of adherence to the rights to humanity. Regulatory measures should be followed to
conform to the healthcare reforms ethically. Any researcher should be barred from injecting
prisoners with drugs and using them wrongfully without their consent. The only exception should
be to ensure the prisoners’ safety, and the ratio used should be 50-50- the prisoners should equate
to non-prisoners. Any prisoner used in research should be on full consent of the consequences, and
they should participate willingly, not forcefully or without permission.
Qualitative analysis of restorative practices in prison
There is no perfect society. Each society has shortcomings and among these shortcomings
include the prisoners. Most of the prisoners are guilty of a crime. It is upon countries to humanize
punishments and reduce brutality in prison. The severity of penalties varies in various countries,
but sentencing should be done according to global knowledge of humanity. However, some prisons
do not meet the minimum requirement hence posing as threat structures to the prisoners’ healthcare
and prison warders (Rekh & Jain, 2019). Any system should have a minimum required threshold
to start operating. Healthcare policies are among the core initiatives that must be adhered to.
According to the United Nations Standard, a prison must hav …
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