SOLUTION: UArizona Global Campus Women Discrimination Walmart Inc Literature Review

Running Head: DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN
Walmart Case Studies:
Discrimination Against Women in the Workplace
Name
Institution
Date
1
DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN
2
Business Capstone Proposal
Executive Summary
Despite the progressive efforts towards gender equality globally, it remains an elusive goal,
with gender discrimination statistics showing that women continue to experience this vice. In 2017,
the Pew Research Center reported that 42 percent of working women face discrimination because
of their gender in the U.S workplaces. Gender discrimination against women has been one area
that is common in the workplace leading to reduced productivity, frustration, fear, and anger. It is
especially unfortunate to find that some of the worst cases of gender discrimination in the
workplace happen in leading companies such as Walmart Corporation. Governments and
employees continue to put measures to ensure men and women receive equal treatment in the
workplace.
This research focused on gender discrimination, with Walmart Corporation being the point of
reference. The research methodology used for this paper was a literature review. The findings of
the research are that Walmart Corporation has workplace discrimination practices as evidenced in
their Walmart Inc. versus Dukes 2011, EEOC versus Walmart Inc., Mauldin Inc. versus Walmart
Inc., and California workers versus Walmart Stores cases. The main cause of workplace
discrimination was prejudice about the roles that women could play in the workplace. This then
led to discriminatory practices such as unequal pay with male counterparts and reduced promotion
opportunities. The consequences to the employees and the organization at large is reduced job
motivation, lack of teamwork and a general decrease in productivity of the workforce. The study
concluded that workplace is a menace that needs to be addressed urgently to reduce the adverse
effects of lowered profitability and productivity within organizations.
DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN
3
Introduction
Gender discrimination has existed since time immemorial, although significant strides
have been made to change this narrative. In the workplace, gender discrimination refers to the
treatment of employees differently because of their gender and, in this case, because they are
female. This is a natural act that women should not have to pay for as most of them have the
intellectual and the physical capacities to handle the positions taken away from them by these
backward practices. The United States government declares that gender discrimination is illegal,
although it is still widely prominent in modern day organizations such as Walmart Corporation.
Walmart Corporation is a global market leader when it comes to retail. Thus, the expectation
would be that it is also a leader for ethical business practices, especially in the domain of gender
equity. However, from the company has had numerous discrimination cases in the past including
Walmart Inc. versus Dukes 2011, EEOC versus Walmart Inc., Mauldin Inc. versus Walmart Inc.,
and California workers versus Walmart Stores. Through a substantial literature review, these
cases will form the bulk of this research. The research questions that an analysis of these cases
will help answer are:
What are the most common forms of workplace gender discrimination?
What are the preventive measures for workplace gender discrimination?
What are the legal implications for workplace discrimination?
DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN
4
References
Pew Research Center. (2017). Gender discrimination comes in many forms for today’s working
women. Retrieved from https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/12/14/genderdiscrimination-comes-in-many-forms-for-todays-working-women/
Reinsch, R., & Goltz, S. (2014). You can’t get there from here: Implications of the Walmart v.
Dukes decision for addressing second-generation discrimination. Northwestern Journal of
Law and Social Policy
U.S Equal Employment Commission. (EEOC). (2020). Walmart, Inc. to Pay $20 Million to
Settle EEOC Nationwide Hiring Discrimination Case. Retrieved
from https://www.eeoc.gov/newsroom/walmart-inc-pay-20-million-settle-eeoc-nationwidehiring-discrimination-case
Running head: BUSINESS CAPSTONE PROPOSAL
Business Capstone Proposal
Name
Institutional Affiliation
1
BUSINESS CAPSTONE PROPOSAL
2
Introduction
This research paper will explore discrimination against women in the workplace. The
article will discuss the significance of carrying out a study on this subject and relate it to some
of the case studies that have been reported about Walmart Inc. Also, the research will focus on
the causes of the discriminatory practices. It has been a disturbing norm that women are
continually molested in various ways in Walmart Inc. the analysis is fundamental in multiple
areas of discrimination. The most common types of discrimination against women fall between
the amounts of salary paid to them compared to their male counterparts, the rate at which they
are subjected to bonuses, and the training spectra they are enlightened with in terms of
sensitization. Various lawsuits have been made over time against Walmart Inc. affiliated with
women’s discrimination. The court system has been tracked with closeness to ensure that
democracy and equality are implemented with full effect, but the company has never learned
to some extent. With the same analogy that other companies have used on a global scale to
ensure that the female gender is biased in a workplace spectrum.
Lastly, the paper will consider the consequences of the practices to highlight the legal
ramifications of discrimination. The realm of fundamental ontology is what will ensure that the
research becomes ethically right. Making a mistake is unavoidable, but repeating it is not
morally right. Walmart Inc. has discriminated against women and is still repeating the same
mistakes to new female workers, should seize through ramification paradigms. The
ramification is more like a self-check status quo that a healthy working environment can
distinguish between a red-line and workable plan. Finding justice for women in the current
century should not be done along the courts’ corridors; it should be dealt with ethical reasoning
that everyone, despite the gender, is equal. Once people realize both males and females are
similar, then discriminating against women will be a thing of the past by default.
BUSINESS CAPSTONE PROPOSAL
3
Overview of Case Study
This section of the research report will summarize between three and four case studies of
discrimination against women in Walmart Incorporation. In particular, the paper will highlight
the most critical takeaways from each case. The research focuses on Walmart Inc. versus Dukes
2011, EEOC versus Walmart Inc., Mauldin Inc. versus Walmart Inc., and California workers
versus Walmart Stores.
Research Questions and Methods
The approach to having women discriminated against in this research will conform to
how the culture of discrimination starts. Women, just like their male counterparts, are regular
applicants of a job vacancy at Walmart Inc. Since many cases against women discrimination
has been reported in the organization, it means that it starts right from their recruitment process,
how females are interviewed, and how they are synchronized in the firm thereof. To discuss
discrimination against women in the workplace, its causes, how it happens, and its impacts on
the victims and the organization as a whole must be incorporated. Such incorporation will then
bring the organization ethics and rectify where spots of discrimination are engulfed.
The paper will discuss some of the ways that such discrimination can stop. More
importantly, the report will identify some of the channels that the female employees can take
to address workplace gender discrimination. To reduce the rate of discrimination, women must
come out clear on what they expect in a working environment and the exact antidote of what
should happen in both genders. This way, ideological radicalization will have to normalize any
form of discrimination. A win-win paradigm for both genders will transition a working
connotation towards a profitable venture.
BUSINESS CAPSTONE PROPOSAL
4
The questions that the paper will address include the following:
How is the recruitment of new employees done more so for the female gender?
Where are females more likely to be posted in Walmart Inc.?
What are the salaries of women compared to men in the same docket at the same store?
Based on business forums, what are Walmart Inc.’s chances versus Dukes picking a female to
represent them as opposed to male counterparts?
During the employment spectrum, what are the chances of a male getting a job compared to a
female?
How are female employees catered for during pregnancy off, and how are they incorporated
back to the system after maternity leave?
What are the most common forms of workplace gender discrimination?
What are the preventive measures for workplace gender discrimination?
What are the legal implications for workplace discrimination?
Relevant Literature Review
The study will incorporate the case Walmart Inc. versus Dukes 2011 by looking at how
some women have failed to get justice from their discriminatory workplace cases. The study
will also include EEOC versus Walmart Inc. by looking at how some organizations have
subjected their female employees to various unhealthy physical abilities testing. Again,
the Mauldin Inc. versus Walmart Inc. is a case to identify how the female employees are denied
vital services such as unique insurance covers.
BUSINESS CAPSTONE PROPOSAL
5
What is Workplace Gender Discrimination?
Workplace gender discrimination is the deliberate act of ensuring that female employees do
not have equal chances with their male counterparts. It occurs in many forms. However, the
paper notes that all the employees should have equal and fair options and opportunities.
Synthesis and Discussion
This section will bring together the aspects of workplace gender discrimination. It will discuss
the topic from the angle of the case studies. Such discussions will give the actual picture of the
importance of the subject.
Conclusion and Recommendations
The paper will summarize the key findings from the case studies. Also, the report will extend
the results and their implications to other organizations. The last bit would involve making
recommendations based on the paper’s findings.
References
Reinsch, R., & Goltz, S. (2014). You can’t get there from here: Implications of the Walmart
v. Dukes decision for addressing second-generation discrimination. Northwestern
Journal of Law and Social Policy
BUSINESS CAPSTONE PROPOSAL
6
U.S Equal Employment Commission. (EEOC). (2020). Walmart, Inc. to Pay $20 Million to
Settle EEOC Nationwide Hiring Discrimination Case. Retrieved from
https://www.eeoc.gov/newsroom/walmart-inc-pay-20-million-settle-eeoc-nationwidehiring-discrimination-case
Running head: DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN
Walmart Incorporation Case Study
Discrimination Against Women in the Workplace
Name
Institutional Affiliation
Date
1
WORKPLACE DISCRIMINATION
2
Research Methodology
Research question: Discrimination against women has continued to be elusive despite the
global equality measures to stamp out the vice.
Defining the Case
Workplace discrimination depends on an organization’s culture and practices. There
are no boundaries and restrictions that confine men or women to do specific jobs or to be part
of specific teams in the contemporary world. When job opportunities present themselves, both
men and women apply with the expectations that they will be chosen to fill the organizations’
vacancies. Walmart is a particular case that has had this challenge for a long time.
Discrimination against women is a vice that should be well understood to fight and eliminate.
The specific points of concern include the process of recruitment. It is vital to understand how
Walmart conducts its recruitment activities, particularly for the new female employees.
Another point of concern is the specific duties that Walmart Incorporation is likely to attach
the female employees to. These are the main concerns that should be addressed. Also, the
salaries of women that serve the same roles as men in the organization should. Again,
Walmart’s chance of picking female employees to represent it in the business forums is a point
of keen interest. All these elements revolve around the chances that female employees have in
Walmart. Again, it is a point of concern to look at the special offs given to female employees
during and after maternity periods. All these elements constitute the bigger picture that the
study intends to explore.
Selecting the Cases
This study intends to incorporate three cases. Firstly, the study uses Walmart Inc. versus
Dukes 2011. According to Reinsch & Goltz (2014), the United States Supreme Court had to
make a ruling on a case that filed a lawsuit for employment discrimination. The case involved
WORKPLACE DISCRIMINATION
3
about 1.5 million women that alleged gender discrimination in the Walmart stores. Lead by
Betty Dukes. The plaintiffs claimed that Walmart discriminated against women in salaries and
wages and promotional policies (Reinsch & Goltz, 2014). The second case involves the EEOC
versus Walmart Inc. According to the U.S. Equal Employment Commission (2020), hearings
were implicating Walmart Incorporation of the female applicants’ illegal testing screens
because of their gender. This is just a particular case where an organization subjected its
employees to unhealthy physical abilities testing. It is a point of concern because the male
applicants were not subjected to such conditions, yet they too had to be part of the team to be
hired. The last case involves Mauldin Inc. versus Walmart Inc. according to Cania (2002),
Walmart was facing off with Mauldin over insurance covers. The whole issue arose from the
fact that Walmart’s female employees had been denied vital services at the workplace.
However, the most significant service that attracted and led to recourse to the legal redress
involved Walmart denying the female employees vital insurance covers.
Collecting the Data
All these cases reveal that Walmart has struggled with discrimination against women.
These are just three cases that were recorded over less than two decades. Despite facing legal
battles at the judicial courts over different issues, Walmart keeps recording new cases that seem
worse than the previous ones. All the cases proved that Walmart was on the wrong side by
engaging in discriminatory activities. The courts used evidence presented to it to make the
respective rulings on all the cases. The pieces of evidence that the Courts and the judges based
their rulings on are the same data that this study uses to prove that Walmart Incorporation
participated in discriminatory activities. The study collects and analyzes the court ruling based
on evidence as proof that the organization treats its employees unequally, with the female
employees suffering from such unfair treatment.
WORKPLACE DISCRIMINATION
4
Analysis, Interpretation, and Reporting
The study incorporates three different cases on the subject of discrimination. Therefore,
the study analyzes the data of the individual cases first before making a general analysis.
For Walmart Inc. versus Dukes 2011., the Supreme Court established that Walmart did not
offer the same pay and promotional platform. In most cases, the male employees were favored
while their female counterparts struggled to have the same opportunities despite the same
qualifications. This case may be discouraging to any female employee working for Walmart
because they know that despite hard work and effort, the employer is unlikely to appreciate
their contributions like it does on the male employees. EEOC versus Walmart Inc., the
discrimination risked the female applicants even before their employment. Such practices may
expose them to ill-health conditions that may turn out to be fatal. The last case, Mauldin Inc.
versus Walmart Inc., suggests that the female employees may have to struggle with medical
bills alone because the insurance covers do not adequately cover them. With lower pay, the
female employees may have to struggle with meeting their healthcare services in case of
illnesses and workplace injuries.
The results imply that the female employees continue to be organizations’ targets. They
are vulnerable to discrimination and ill-treatment by their male colleagues. Secondly,
discrimination means that the employees are exposed to workplace injuries without insurance
covers to meet their medical care and services.
WORKPLACE DISCRIMINATION
5
References
Cania, M. K. (2002). From Bartell to Erickson to Mauldin: Title VII’s Effect on Insurance
Coverage
of
Contraceptives. Buff.
Women’s
LJ, 11,
59.
https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/bufwlj11&div=10&id
=&page
Pew Research Center. (2017). Gender discrimination comes in many forms for today’s working
women. Retrieved from https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/12/14/genderdiscrimination-comes-in-many-forms-for-todays-working-women/
Reinsch, R., & Goltz, S. (2014). You can’t get there from here: Implications of the Walmart v.
Dukes decision for addressing second-generation discrimination. Northwestern Journal
of Law and Social Policy
Reinsch, R., & Goltz, S. (2014). You can’t get there from here: Implications of the Walmart v.
Dukes decision for addressing second-generation discrimination. Northwestern
Journal of Law and Social Policy
U.S Equal Employment Commission. (EEOC). (2020). Walmart, Inc. to Pay $20 Million to
Settle
EEOC
Nationwide
Hiring
Discrimination
Case.
Retrieved
from
https://www.eeoc.gov/newsroom/walmart-inc-pay-20-million-settle-eeoc-nationwidehiring-discrimination-case
U.S Equal Employment Commission. (EEOC). (2020). Walmart, Inc. to Pay $20 Million to
Settle
EEOC
Nationwide
Hiring
Discrimination
Case. Retrieved
from https://www.eeoc.gov/newsroom/walmart-inc-pay-20-million-settle-eeocnationwide-hiring-discrimination-case
WORKPLACE DISCRIMINATION
6

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