SOLUTION: University of California Irvine Individual versus Group Elicitation Questions

v3
A G U I D E T O T H E B U S I N E S S A N A LY S I S
B O DY O F K N O W L ED GE
®
BABOK
®
v3
A GUIDE TO THE BUSINESS ANALYSIS
BODY OF KNOWLEDGE®
International Institute of Business Analysis, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
©2005, 2006, 2008, 2009, 2015 International Institute of Business Analysis. All rights reserved.
Version 1.0 and 1.4 published 2005. Version 1.6 Draft published 2006. Version 1.6 Final published 2008. Version 2.0
published 2009. Version 3.0 published 2015.
ISBN-13: 97978-1-927584-03-3
This document is provided to the business analysis community for educational purposes. IIBA® does not warrant that it is
suitable for any other purpose and makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for
errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the
use of the information contained herein.
IIBA®, the IIBA® logo, BABOK® and Business Analysis Body of Knowledge® are registered trademarks owned by
International Institute of Business Analysis. CBAP® is a registered certification mark owned by International Institute of
Business Analysis. Certified Business Analysis Professional, EEP and the EEP logo are trademarks owned by International
Institute of Business Analysis.
Archimate® is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the US and other countries.
Business Model Canvas is copyrighted by BusinessModelGeneration.com and released under Creative Commons license.
CMMI® is a registered trademark of Carnegie Mellon University.
COBIT® is a trademark of the Information Systems Audit and Control Association and the IT Governance Institute.
Mind Map® is a registered trademark of the Buzan Organization.
Scaled Agile Framework® and SAFe™ are trademarks of Scaled Agile, Inc.
TOGAF® is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the US and other countries.
Unified Modelling Language™ and UML® are trademarks of the Object Management Group.
Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture is a trademark of the Zachman Institute for Framework Advancement.
No challenge to the status or ownership of these or any other trademarked terms contained herein is intended by the
International Institute of Business Analysis.
Any inquiries regarding this publication, requests for usage rights for the material included herein, or corrections should be
sent by email to bok@iiba.org.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
Purpose of the BABOK® Guide 1
What is Business Analysis? 2
Who is a Business Analyst? 2
Structure of the BABOK® Guide 3
Chapter 2: Business Analysis Key Concepts
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
The Business Analysis Core Concept Model™ 12
Key Terms 14
Requirements Classification Schema 16
Stakeholders 16
Requirements and Designs 19
Chapter 3: Business Analysis Planning and Monitoring
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
Plan Business Analysis Approach 24
Plan Stakeholder Engagement 31
Plan Business Analysis Governance 37
Plan Business Analysis Information Management 42
Identify Business Analysis Performance Improvements 47
i
Table of Contents
Chapter 4: Elicitation and Collaboration
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
Prepare for Elicitation 56
Conduct Elicitation 61
Confirm Elicitation Results 65
Communicate Business Analysis Information 67
Manage Stakeholder Collaboration 71
Chapter 5: Requirements Life Cycle Management
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
Trace Requirements 79
Maintain Requirements 83
Prioritize Requirements 86
Assess Requirements Changes 91
Approve Requirements 95
Chapter 6: Strategy Analysis
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
Analyze Current State 103
Define Future State 110
Assess Risks 120
Define Change Strategy 124
Chapter 7: Requirements Analysis and Design Definition
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
Specify and Model Requirements 136
Verify Requirements 141
Validate Requirements 144
Define Requirements Architecture 148
Define Design Options 152
Analyze Potential Value and Recommend Solution 157
Chapter 8: Solution Evaluation
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
Measure Solution Performance 166
Analyze Performance Measures 170
Assess Solution Limitations 173
Assess Enterprise Limitations 177
Recommend Actions to Increase Solution Value 182
Chapter 9: Underlying Competencies
9.1
Analytical Thinking and Problem Solving 188
ii
Table of Contents
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
Behavioural Characteristics 194
Business Knowledge 199
Communication Skills 203
Interaction Skills 207
Tools and Technology 211
Chapter 10: Techniques
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.10
10.11
10.12
10.13
10.14
10.15
10.16
10.17
10.18
10.19
10.20
10.21
10.22
10.23
10.24
10.25
10.26
10.27
10.28
10.29
10.30
10.31
10.32
Acceptance and Evaluation Criteria 217
Backlog Management 220
Balanced Scorecard 223
Benchmarking and Market Analysis 226
Brainstorming 227
Business Capability Analysis 230
Business Cases 234
Business Model Canvas 236
Business Rules Analysis 240
Collaborative Games 243
Concept Modelling 245
Data Dictionary 247
Data Flow Diagrams 250
Data Mining 253
Data Modelling 256
Decision Analysis 261
Decision Modelling 265
Document Analysis 269
Estimation 271
Financial Analysis 274
Focus Groups 279
Functional Decomposition 283
Glossary 286
Interface Analysis 287
Interviews 290
Item Tracking 294
Lessons Learned 296
Metrics and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) 297
Mind Mapping 299
Non-Functional Requirements Analysis 302
Observation 305
Organizational Modelling 308
iii
Table of Contents
10.33
10.34
10.35
10.36
10.37
10.38
10.39
10.40
10.41
10.42
10.43
10.44
10.45
10.46
10.47
10.48
10.49
10.50
Prioritization 311
Process Analysis 314
Process Modelling 318
Prototyping 323
Reviews 326
Risk Analysis and Management 329
Roles and Permissions Matrix 333
Root Cause Analysis 335
Scope Modelling 338
Sequence Diagrams 341
Stakeholder List, Map, or Personas 344
State Modelling 348
Survey or Questionnaire 350
SWOT Analysis 353
Use Cases and Scenarios 356
User Stories 359
Vendor Assessment 361
Workshops 363
Chapter 11: Perspectives
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
The Agile Perspective 368
The Business Intelligence Perspective 381
The Information Technology Perspective 394
The Business Architecture Perspective 408
The Business Process Management Perspective 424
Appendix A: Glossary 441
Appendix B: Techniques to Task Mapping 457
Appendix C: Contributors 473
Appendix D: Summary of Changes from BABOK® Guide v 2.0 483
iv
Preface
IIBA® was founded in Toronto, Canada in October of 2003 to support the business analysis community
by:
• creating and developing awareness and recognition of the value and contribution of the business
analyst,
• defining the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge® (BABOK®),
• providing a forum for knowledge sharing and contribution to the business analysis profession, and
• publicly recognizing and certifying qualified practitioners through an internationally
acknowledged certification program.
The Body of Knowledge Committee was formed in October of 2004 to define and draft a global
standard for the practice of business analysis. In January of 2005, IIBA released version 1.0 of A Guide
to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge® (BABOK® Guide) for feedback and comment. That version
included an outline of the proposed content and some key definitions. Version 1.4 was released in
October of 2005, with draft content in some knowledge areas. Version 1.6, which included detailed
information regarding most of the knowledge areas, was published in draft form in June of 2006 and
updated to incorporate errata in October of 2008.
The Body of Knowledge Committee developed version 2.0 of A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of
Knowledge® (BABOK® Guide) with the guidance of expert writing teams, and feedback garnered from
expert, practitioner, and public reviews. Version 2.0 introduced such concepts as the Requirements
Classification Schema and the Input/Output models. Version 2.0 was published in 2009 and became the
globally recognized standard for the practice of business analysis.
Following the publication of version 2.0, IIBA sought out a number of recognized experts in business
analysis and related fields and solicited their feedback on the content of that edition. The Body of
Knowledge Committee used these comments to plan the vision and scope of this revision. The Body of
Knowledge Committee worked with teams of expert writers to revise and update the content. The
revised draft of A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge® (BABOK® Guide) was reviewed
by teams of both expert and practitioner reviewers. The Body of Knowledge Committee used the
feedback provided to further enhance and refine the text and then made the content available to the
business analysis community for review in 2014. The thousands of items of feedback from this public
review were used to further revise the text to form A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of
Knowledge® (BABOK® Guide) version 3.0.
The goal of this revision was to:
• incorporate new concepts and practices in use since the last revision,
• address the broadening and evolving scope of the profession,
• incorporate lessons learned from practitioners who have worked with the current version,
• improve the readability and usability of the guide,
• improve the consistency and quality of text and illustrations, and
• improve consistency with other generally accepted standards relating to the practice of business
analysis.
v
The major changes in this release include:
• the inclusion of the Business Analysis Core Concept Model™ (BACCM™),
• the expanded scope of the role of business analysis in creating better business outcomes,
• the inclusion of Perspectives which describe specialized ways in which business analysis
professionals provide unique value to the enterprise,
• new and expanded Underlying Competencies to better reflect the diverse skill sets of the business
analyst, and
• new techniques that have emerged in the practice of business analysis.
This publication supersedes A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge® (BABOK® Guide)
version 2.0.
The BABOK® Guide contains a description of generally accepted practices in the field of business
analysis. The content included in this release has been verified through reviews by practitioners, surveys
of the business analysis community, and consultations with recognized experts in the field. The data
available to IIBA demonstrates that the tasks and techniques described in this publication are in use by a
majority of business analysis practitioners. As a result, we can have confidence that the tasks and
techniques described in the BABOK® Guide should be applicable in most contexts where business
analysis is performed, most of the time.
The BABOK® Guide should not be construed to mandate that the practices described in this publication
should be followed under all circumstances. Any set of practices must be tailored to the specific
conditions under which business analysis is being performed. In addition, practices which are not
generally accepted by the business analysis community at the time of publication may be equally
effective, or more effective, than the practices described in the BABOK® Guide. As such practices
become generally accepted, and as data is collected to verify their effectiveness, they will be
incorporated into future editions of this publication. IIBA encourages all practitioners of business
analysis to be open to new approaches and new ideas, and wishes to encourage innovation in the
practice of business analysis.
IIBA would like to extend its thanks and the thanks of the business analysis community to all those who
volunteered their time and effort to the development of this revision, as well as those who provided
informal feedback to us in other ways.
vi
1
Introduction
A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge® (BABOK® Guide) is the
globally recognized standard for the practice of business analysis. The BABOK®
Guide describes business analysis knowledge areas, tasks, underlying
competencies, techniques and perspectives on how to approach business
analysis.
1.1
Purpose of the BABOK® Guide
The primary purpose of the BABOK® Guide is to define the profession of business
analysis and provide a set of commonly accepted practices. It helps practitioners
discuss and define the skills necessary to effectively perform business analysis
work. The BABOK® Guide also helps people who work with and employ business
analysts to understand the skills and knowledge they should expect from a skilled
practitioner.
Business analysis is a broad profession in which business analysts might perform
work for many different types of initiatives across an enterprise. Practitioners may
employ different competencies, knowledge, skills, terminology, and attitudes that
they use when performing business analysis tasks. The BABOK® Guide is a
common framework for all perspectives, describing business analysis tasks that
are performed to properly analyze a change or evaluate the necessity for a
change. Tasks may vary in form, order, or importance for individual business
analysts or for various initiatives.
The six knowledge areas of the BABOK® Guide (Business Analysis Planning and
Monitoring, Elicitation and Collaboration, Requirements Life Cycle Management,
Strategy Analysis, Requirements Analysis and Design Definition (RADD), and
1
What is Business Analysis?
Introduction
Solution Evaluation) describe the practice of business analysis as it is applied
within the boundaries of a project or throughout enterprise evolution and
continuous improvement. The following image shows how three of the
knowledge areas support the delivery of business value before, during, and after
the life cycle of a project.
Figure 1.1.1: Business Analysis Beyond Projects
Project
Pre-Project
Project
Post-Project
Rationale
Delivery
Benefits
Strategy Analysis
RADD
Solution Evaluation
1.2
What is Business Analysis?
Business analysis is the practice of enabling change in an enterprise by defining
needs and recommending solutions that deliver value to stakeholders. Business
analysis enables an enterprise to articulate needs and the rationale for change,
and to design and describe solutions that can deliver value.
Business analysis is performed on a variety of initiatives within an enterprise.
Initiatives may be strategic, tactical, or operational. Business analysis may be
performed within the boundaries of a project or throughout enterprise evolution
and continuous improvement. It can be used to understand the current state, to
define the future state, and to determine the activities required to move from the
current to the future state.
Business analysis can be performed from a diverse array of perspectives. The
BABOK® Guide describes several of these perspectives: agile, business
intelligence, information technology, business architecture, and business process
management. A perspective can be thought of as a lens through which the
business analysis practitioner views their work activities based on the current
context. One or many perspectives may apply to an initiative, and the perspectives
outlined in the BABOK® Guide do not represent all the contexts for business
analysis or the complete set of business analysis disciplines.
1.3
Who is a Business Analyst?
A business analyst is any person who performs business analysis tasks described in
the BABOK® Guide, no matter their job title or organizational role. Business
analysts are responsible for discovering, synthesizing, and analyzing information
2
Structure of the BABOK® Guide
Introduction
from a variety of sources within an enterprise, including tools, processes,
documentation, and stakeholders. The business analyst is responsible for eliciting
the actual needs of stakeholders—which frequently involves investigating and
clarifying their expressed desires—in order to determine underlying issues and
causes.
Business analysts play a role in aligning the designed and delivered solutions with
the needs of stakeholders. The activities that business analysts perform include:
• understanding enterprise problems and goals,
• analyzing needs and solutions,
• devising strategies,
• driving change, and
• facilitating stakeholder collaboration.
Other common job titles for people who perform business analysis include:
• business architect,
• business systems analyst,
• data analyst,
• enterprise analyst,
• management consultant,
• process analyst,
• product manager,
• product owner,
• requirements engineer, and
• systems analyst.
1.4
Structure of the BABOK® Guide
The core content of the BABOK® Guide is composed of business analysis tasks
organized into knowledge areas. Knowledge areas are a collection of logically
(but not sequentially) related tasks. These tasks describe specific activities that
accomplish the purpose of their associated knowledge area.
The Business Analysis Key Concepts, Underlying Competencies, Techniques, and
Perspectives sections form the extended content in the BABOK® Guide that helps
guide business analysts to better perform business analysis tasks.
• Business Analysis Key Concepts: define the key terms needed to
understand all other content, concepts, and ideas within the BABOK®
Guide.
• Underlying Competencies: provide a description of the behaviours,
characteristics, knowledge, and personal qualities that support the effective
practice of business analysis.
3
Structure of the BABOK® Guide
Introduction
• Techniques: provide a means to perform business analysis tasks. The
techniques described in the BABOK® Guide are intended to cover the most
common and widespread techniques practiced within the business analysis
community.
• Perspectives: describe various views of business analysis. Perspectives help
business analysts working from various points of view to better perform
business analysis tasks, given the context of the initiative.
1.4.1
Key Concepts
The Business Analysis Key Concepts chapter provides a basic understanding of
the central ideas necessary for understanding the BABOK® Guide.
This chapter consists of:
• Business Analysis Core Concept Model™ (BACCM™)
• Key Terms
• Requirements Classification Schema
• Stakeholders
• Requirements and Design
1.4.2
Knowledge Areas
Knowledge areas represent areas of specific business analysis expertise that
encompass several tasks.
The six knowledge areas are:
Each knowledge
area includes a
visual
representation of
its inputs and
outputs.
• Business Analysis Planning and Monitoring: describes the tasks that
business analysts perform to organize and coordinate the efforts of
business analysts and stakeholders. These tasks produce outputs that are
used as key inputs and guidelines for the other tasks throughout the
BABOK® Guide.
• Elicitation and Collaboration: describes the tasks that business analysts
perform to prepare for and conduct elicitation activities and confirm the
results obtained. It also describes the communication with stakeholders
once the business analysis information is assembled and the ongoing
collaboration with them throughout the business analysis activities.
• Requirements Life Cycle Management: describes the tasks that business
analysts perform in order to manage and maintain requirements and design
information from inception to retirement. These tasks describe establishing
meaningful relationships between related requirements and designs, and
assessing, analyzing and gaining consensus on proposed changes to
requirements and designs.
• Strategy Analysis: describes the business analysis work that must be
performed to collaborate with stakeholders in order to identify a need of
strategic or tactical importance (the business need), enable the enterprise to
4
Structure of the BABOK® Guide
Introduction
address that need, and align the resulting strategy for the change with
higher- and lower-lev …
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