SOLUTION: University of Colorado at Boulder Deviance and the Counterculture Movement Essay

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Deviance and the Counterculture Movement
The social concept of “Deviance” could be considered a key part of the foundation of human
society. After all, despite being social creatures, humans are also independent beings with free
will, the ability to reason, and the ability to form personal opinions. Therefore Deviance, or the
violation and rejection of cultural and social norms, is an inevitable occurrence (Macionis 2017).
The concept of Deviance has continuously played an important role in how societies have been
shaped and evolved throughout history, especially during the modern age here in the United
States.
A good way to understand how drastically social deviance can shape a society and change
cultural norms is to look at the United State’s Counterculture movement of the 1960’s and how it
relates to society today. The counterculture movement serves as an excellent example of
Durkheim’s Basic Insight, as well as a perspective of deviance through the Structural-Functional
approach. Post World War Two through the early 1960’s were a tumultuous time in American
History; The Communist paranoia of the 1950’s, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Civil Rights
Movement, and the Vietnam War are just a few key events that sparked widespread unrest and
dissatisfaction with cultural norms within the United States and how society functioned. Many of
the younger generations blamed the events of that time on the attitudes, values, and actions of the
older generations, believing them to either allow or outright encourage the various crises and
suffering going on around them. As a result, people began to form protests and marches to speak
out against the things that they viewed to be grave injustices. It went beyond political and social
beliefs, sparking the creation of various music, fashion, and art subcultures that defied everything
represented in traditional culture. Meanwhile, the older generations and those who supported
traditional American culture viewed the Counterculture movement as radical and a threat to
American society’s ability to function.
These attitudes reflect all four essential functions of Durkheim’s Basic Insight. It reaffirmed the
cultural values and norms of traditional society and affirmed the new ideas and values of
counterculture society. It re-defined moral boundaries, brought people together to fight for social
changes that would embrace those ideals, and eventually reshaped American culture into what it
is today (Macionis 2017). The Counterculture movement may have happened in the 1960’s, but
it is still relevant today due to its impact in the following decades, especially for our generation.
The Counterculture movement wasn’t just a singular event or series of events- it is an ongoing
social phenomenon that kickstarted and inspired other social/political movements that have
steadily reshaped America’s cultural norms and how our society functions. Some examples from
our generation are the Black Lives Matter movement’s fight for racial equality and the Me Too
movement’s struggle against societal attitudes and norms that encourage sexism and sexual
harassment. The ideas of Durkheim’s Basic Insight are still relevant today: People are still trying
to change the way our society functions by re-defining moral boundaries and affirming what is
socially and culturally acceptable, and they are still coming together to fight for the
implementation of those changes.
Sociology
SEVENTEENTH EDITION
Chapter 10
Deviance
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Learning Objectives (1 of 2)
10.1 Explain how sociology addresses limitations of a biological or psychological
approach to deviance.
10.2 Apply structural-functional theories to the topic of deviance.
10.3 Apply symbolic-interaction theories to the topic of deviance.
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Learning Objectives (2 of 2)
10.4 Apply social-conflict theories to the topic of deviance.
10.5 Identify patterns of crime in the United States and around the world.
10.6 Analyze the operation of the criminal justice system.
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The Power of Society
Does everyone—regardless of
race—run the same risk of being
sent to prison if they engage in
illegal drug use?
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What is Deviance? (1 of 7)
10.1 Explain how sociology addresses limitations of a biological or psychological
approach to deviance.
• Deviance
– Recognized violation of cultural norms
• Crime
– Violation of a society’s formally enacted criminal law
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What is Deviance? (2 of 7)
• Norms guide almost all human activities.
• Deviant actions or attitudes involve some
element of difference.
• Not all deviance involves action or even
choice.
• How a society defines deviance, who is
branded as deviant, and what people
decide to do about deviance all have to do
with the way society is organized.
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What is Deviance? (3 of 7)
Social Control
• Attempts by society to regular people’s thoughts and behavior
• Informal social control
– Parents praise or scold their children
• Formal social control
– Criminal justice system: A formal response by police, courts, and prison officials
to alleged violations of the law
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What is Deviance? (4 of 7)
The Biological Context
• Genetic and environmental factors, especially abuse early in life: predictors of adult
crime/violence
• Evaluation
– Theory offers a limited explanation of crime
– Biological traits in combination with environmental factors explain some serious
crime
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What is Deviance? (5 of 7)
Personality Factors
• Deviance viewed as unsuccessful “socialization”
• Focus on abnormality in individual personality
• Reckless and Dinitz: Containment Theory
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What is Deviance? (6 of 7)
The Social Foundations of Deviance
• Deviance varies according to cultural norms.
– No thought or action is inherently deviant.
• People become deviant as others define them that way.
– How others perceive and label us
• How societies set norms and how they define rule breaking both involve social power.
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What is Deviance? (7 of 7)
Why is it that street-corner gambling like this is
usually against the law but playing the same
games in a fancy casino is not?
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Structural-Functional Theories:
The Functions of Deviance (1 of 5)
10.2 Apply structural-functional theories to the topic of deviance.
Durkheim’s Basic Insight
• Deviance affirms cultural values and norms.
– There can be no good without evil and no
justice without crime.
• Responding to deviance clarifies moral
boundaries.
– A boundary between right wrong
• Responding to deviance brings people together.
– Reaffirms moral ties
• Deviance encourages social change.
– Today’s deviance can become tomorrow’s
morality.
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Figure 10–1 Merton’s Strain Theory
of Deviance
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Structural-Functional Theories:
The Functions of Deviance (2 of 5)
Merton’s Strain Theory
• Extent and type of deviance depend on whether a society provides the means to
achieve cultural goals.
• Conformity
– Pursue cultural goals through approved means
• Innovation
– Unconventional means to achieve approved goals
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Structural-Functional Theories:
The Functions of Deviance (3 of 5)
• Ritualism
– Rigidly stick to rules
• Retreatism
– Reject cultural goals and conventional means
• Rebellion
– Take retreatism one step further and form a counterculture
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Structural-Functional Theories:
The Functions of Deviance (4 of 5)
Deviant Subcultures
• Cloward and Ohlin
– Crime results from not only limited opportunity but also accessible illegitimate
opportunity
• Cohen
– Delinquency most common among those with least opportunity
• Miller
– Delinquent subcultures
▪ Trouble, toughness, smartness, need for excitement, belief in fate, desire for
freedom
• Anderson
– In poor urban neighborhoods, most people conform to conventional values.
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Structural-Functional Theories:
The Functions of Deviance (5 of 5)
Young people cut off from legitimate
opportunity often form subcultures that
many people view as deviant.
Gang subcultures are one way young
people gain the sense of belonging and
respect denied to them by the larger
culture.
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Symbolic-Interaction Theories:
Defining Deviance (1 of 7)
10.3 Apply symbolic-interaction theories to the topic of deviance.
Labeling Theory
• Main contribution of symbolic-interaction analysis is labeling theory.
• Deviance and conformity result not from what people do as how others respond to
those actions.
• Primary deviance
– Norm violations that most people take part in with little harm to self-concept
• Secondary deviance
– When people “make something” of another’s deviant behavior
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Symbolic-Interaction Theories:
Defining Deviance (2 of 7)
• Stigma
– Powerfully negative label that greatly
changes a person’s self-concept and social
identity
Do you think a man such as Dylann Roof is “evil”
and deserving of severe punishment?
Or do you think anyone who would commit such an
act must be “sick” and in need of help?
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Symbolic-Interaction Theories:
Defining Deviance (3 of 7)
• Retrospective labeling
– Re-interpreting someone’s past in light of present deviance
• Projective labeling
– Predicts future deviant behavior
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Symbolic-Interaction Theories:
Defining Deviance (4 of 7)
The Medicalization of Deviance
• Transform moral and legal deviance into a medical condition
• Swapping one set of labels for another
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Symbolic-Interaction Theories:
Defining Deviance (5 of 7)
The Difference Labels Make
• Three consequences
– Who responds
– How people respond
– Personal competence of the deviant person
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Symbolic-Interaction Theories:
Defining Deviance (6 of 7)
Sutherland’s Differential Association
• Any behavioral pattern is learned in groups.
• Conformity or deviance depends on amount of contact with others.
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Symbolic-Interaction Theories:
Defining Deviance (7 of 7)
Hirschi’s Control Theory
• Attachment
– Strong social attachments encourage conformity
• Opportunity
– Greater the access to legitimate opportunity, the greater advantages of
conformity
• Involvement
– Extensive involvement in legitimate activities inhibits deviance
• Belief
– Strong belief in conventional morality and respect for authority controls deviance
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Theories of Class, Race, and Gender:
Deviance and Inequality (1 of 5)
10.4 Apply social-conflict theories to the topic of deviance.
Deviance and Power
• Liazos
– Those defined as deviants not as harmful as they are powerless.
Deviance and Capitalism
• Steven Spitzer’s likely targets of labeling:
– People who interfere with capitalism
– People who cannot or will not work
– People who resist authority
– Anyone who directly challenges the capitalist status quo
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Theories of Class, Race, and Gender:
Deviance and Inequality (2 of 5)
White-Collar Crime
• Crime committed by people of high social position in the course of their occupations
Corporate Crime
• Illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf
Organized Crime
• Business supplying illegal goods or services
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Theories of Class, Race, and Gender:
Deviance and Inequality (3 of 5)
The television series Boardwalk Empire
offers an inside look at the lives of
gangsters in this country’s history.
How accurately do you think the mass
media portray organized crime?
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Theories of Class, Race, and Gender:
Deviance and Inequality (4 of 5)
Race-Conflict Theory: Hate Crimes
• A criminal act against a person or person’s property by an offender motivated by racial
bias
• By 2017, forty-five states and the federal government had enacted legislation that
increased penalties for crimes motivated by hatred.
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Theories of Class, Race, and Gender:
Deviance and Inequality (5 of 5)
Feminist Theory: Deviance and Gender
• Stricter controls placed on women than on men.
• Strain may be due to reality of gender-based inequality.
• Different standards are used to judge the behavior of women and men.
• Why do women commit far fewer crimes than men?
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Applying Theory: Deviance
Deviance
Blank
StructuralFunctional
Theory
Symbolic-Interaction
Theory
Social-Conflict
Theory
Race-Conflict and
Feminist Theories
What is the level
of analysis?
Macro-level
Micro-level
Macro-level
Macro-level
What is
deviance?
Deviance is a basic
part of social
organization.
Deviance is part of
socially constructed
reality that emerges in
interaction.
Deviance results from
social inequality.
Deviance reflects
racial and gender
inequality.
What part does it
play in society?
By defining
deviance, society
sets its moral
boundaries.
Deviance comes into
being as individuals
label something
deviant.
Norms, including laws,
reflect the interests of
powerful members of
society.
Deviant labels are
more readily applied
to women and other
minorities.
What is
important about
deviance?
Deviance is
universal: It exists in
all societies.
Deviance is variable:
Any act or person may
or may not be
labeled deviant.
Deviance is political:
People with little power
are at high risk of being
labeled deviant.
Deviance is a means
of control: Dominant
categories of people
discredit others as a
means to dominate
them.
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Crime (1 of 5)
10.5 Identify patterns of crime in the United States and around the world.
Types of Crime
• Crimes against the person
– Direct violence or threat of it
• Crimes against property
– Involves theft of property
• Victimless crimes (crimes without complaint)
– Violations of law in which there are no obvious victims
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National Map 10–1 The Risk of Violent Crime across
the United States
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Figure 10–2 Crime Rates in the United States
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Crime (2 of 5)
Criminal Statistics
• Victimization surveys
– More than twice as many serious crimes taking place as police reports indicate
The Street Criminal: A Profile
• Ages 15-24
– 14% of population
– 33% of arrests for violent crime, 37% of property crimes
• Gender
– Males commit 62% of property crimes and 80% of violent crimes
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Crime (3 of 5)
• Social class
– Street crime more widespread among those of lower social position
– White-collar and corporate crime committed by more affluent
• Race and ethnicity
– 70% of arrests involve white people
– People of color are overly criminalized
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Crime (4 of 5)
Crime in Global Perspective
• United States and crime
– The U.S. crime rate is high by world standards.
– The rate of U.S. violent crime is several times higher than in Europe.
• Suggested factors
– U.S. culture emphasizes individual economic success
– Higher economic inequality
– Extensive private ownership of guns
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Crime (5 of 5)
• Different countries have different strategies for
dealing with crime.
When economic activity such as selling illegal
drugs takes place outside of the law, people turn
to violence rather than courts to settle
disagreements.
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The U.S. Criminal Justice System (1 of 7)
10.6 Analyze the operation of the criminal justice system.
Due Process
• Anyone charged with a crime must receive:
– Fair notice of the proceedings
– Opportunity to present a defense
– A judge or jury that weighs evidence impartially
– The criminal justice system must operate according to law
– This principle is grounded in the Bill of Rights.
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The U.S. Criminal Justice System (2 of 7)
Police
• Primary point of contact between population and criminal justice system.
• The police maintain public order by enforcing the law.
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Global Map 10–1: Capital Punishment
in Global Perspective
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The U.S. Criminal Justice System (3 of 7)
Courts
• Plea bargaining
– Legal negotiation in which a prosecutor reduces a charge in exchange for a
defendant’s guilty plea
– Widespread because it spares the system the time and expense of trials
– Undercuts both the adversarial process and the rights of defendants
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The U.S. Criminal Justice System (4 of 7)
Punishment
• Retribution
– An act of moral vengeance by which society makes offender suffer as much as
the suffering caused by the crime
• Deterrence
– The attempt to discourage criminality through the use of punishment
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The U.S. Criminal Justice System (5 of 7)
• Rehabilitation
– A program for reforming the offender to prevent later offenses
• Societal protection
– Rendering an offender incapable of further offenses temporarily through
imprisonment or permanently by execution
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Summing Up: Four Justifications
for Punishment
Four Justifications for Punishment
Retribution
The oldest justification for punishment.
Punishment is society’s revenge for a m …
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