SOLUTION: University of Nottingham Assessment on Solar Radiation Based Weather Data Research

There you go buddy ๐Ÿ˜€ , you can ALWAYS chat me for revisions ๐Ÿ™‚ take care buddy(University Name)ASSESSMENT ON SOLAR RADIATION BASED WEATHER DATA(Name)(Course Name)(Instructorโ€™s Name)(Date)AbstractTo measure the solar radiation for Taโ€™if city using the NASA data they’ve already had on hand, Taโ€™ifhas valuable knowledge regarding potential preparation for the weather. We look at the parametersrelated to the area that we have identified Regional Expansions for each month. Hence, we use thevalues to measure the total amount of solar radiation for that each day. Therefore, it is the perfectlocation for our EMA Placement Study, which is only located in the region Latitude 21.24980N inTaโ€™if, Saudi Arabia, with a longitude 40.45E.80 and ranges to be used. This data from NASA-Satellitevia the PVS Yield Predictor API is contrasted with several calculations conducted with the selectedmonth’s estimations for the month of 20 days that have contributed to better performance. Using theframework has lead to satisfactory performance, which is contrasted with the software records.2ContentsNOMENCLATURE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………Error! Bookmark not defined.Description of Site Location ………………………………………………………….Error! Bookmark not defined.Methodology ……………………………………………………………………………….Error! Bookmark not defined.3.1. Angle of Declination (ฮด ) ……………………………………………………Error! Bookmark not defined.3.2. Calculation of Sunset Hour Angle (ฯ‰s) ………………………………….Error! Bookmark not defined.3.3. Calculation of Sunshine Hours (N) ……………………………………….Error! Bookmark not defined.3.4.Calculation of Solar Time: ……………………………………………………Error! Bookmark not defined.3.5.Incident angle calculation at the horizontal surface (ฮธ) ……………Error! Bookmark not defined.3.6.The Basic definitions …………………………………………………………..Error! Bookmark not defined.3.7.Calculating the Air Mass(AM) ……………………………………………..Error! Bookmark not defined.3.8.Solar Radiation Calculations based on Horizontal Plane ………….Error! Bookmark not defined.3.8.1. The Average Monthly daily solar radiation on a horizontal surface (H) Error! Bookmark notdefined.3.8.2.Calculation of the diffuse component ………………………………….Error! Bookmark not defined.3.8.3. Calculating the Beam component ………………………………………Error! Bookmark not defined.33.8.4 Calculating the total solar Radiation (HT) for the tilt angle ๐œท = ๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ”. ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐ŸŽ…… Error! Bookmarknot defined.Results ………………………………………………………………………………………..Error! Bookmark not defined.Conclusion and Discussion ……………………………………………………………Error! Bookmark not defined.Reference List ………………………………………………………………………….Error! Bookmark not defined.Appendices:…………………………………………………………………………………Error! Bookmark not defined.4NOMENCLATURESymbolDescriptionฮดAngles of Declination๐Ž๐’”Sunset Hour AngleNSunshine HourฮธIncident Angleฯ‰Solar AngleฮฒSlope AngleฮณSurface Azimuth Angle๐œƒ๐‘งZenith AngleHAverage Monthly daily solar radiationon a horizontal surface๐‘ฏ๐‘ปTotal Solar Radiation๐‘ฒ๐‘ปAverage Monthly Insolation ClearnessIndexAMAir Mass๐‘ฏ๐‘ซDiffuse Component5๐‘ฏ๐‘ฉBeam Component1. IntroductionThe direct impact of solar energy is in loops on many physical, chemical, and biological cycles.Climate variations can be best understood when looking at the magnitude of solar irradiance andprecipitation (6). The two most significant influences deciding weather in an area are the temperatureand ambient oxygen. Both can contribute to pollutant precursor photochemical processes, orprecursors that are already in the environment, such as acidity, developing there (1). Heat travels inmultiple paths, meaning that a large amount of radiant energy is lost or absorbed due to variouscourses (due to smog, haze, or fog). The interaction between irradiance and rainfall often includeswide-scale events such as El Niรฑo, which change the average atmospheric conditions in severallocations on the earth (2). Although the emphasis has been on the sharing of solar energy and theenvironment through multiple viewpoints and analytical methods, oceans and landmasses have beenviewed separately to grasp further how ocean energy flows impact the climate (3).Some atmospheric and topographic considerations can estimate solar irradiation, but differenttechniques explore the upper and lower limits (10). Others have measured atmospheric variables toprovide a general understanding of how much radiation is present; meanwhile, a more comprehensiveanalysis, known as an algorithm, has taken into account solar radiation at the horizon (13). Laboratory(NASA) space probe-based techniques are used to develop more advanced methods for synoptic-scaleestimation and forecasts (9). Such as data from the National Renewable and Energy Laboratory(NREL) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) satellites, which alsoprovided ground-based approach methods of satellite data (NASA). is flawed. However, the abilities6to distinguish differences on smaller surfaces (shown by a capacity of 20 and 60 arc-minutes) are alsoconsiderably hampered (4).2. Description of Site LocationThis exam has been administered to Ta’if, which is based in the Hejaz, a Province in Saudi Arabiasituated on the Arabian Peninsula and in the 21.2948o latitude and 40.42550 longitude zone. The Ta’ifis a tiny city of 321 square kilometers renowned for its fragrant flowers that rise in the mountainregions and is sometimes referred to as the City of the “City of Rosesโ€ (6). Despite being an altitude of18 meters, Taif is fun from the extreme heat, mainly if it is located near the heights of Al Shafa, whichserves as a dip in a deep gorge for baboons.Figure 1: Taโ€™if city Map in Saudi Arabia [2]In both January and December, with an annual high of 22.6ยฐC and an average temperature outside theArctic Circle, and a minimum of 8.4ยฐC, you have delightful, bearable conditions. The month of June isthe first typical month when temperatures do not range between 35.8ยฐC and 22.3ยฐC, one of the Ta’if’swarmer months. The month of June is reckoned to be moist, with a relative humidity that falls withinthe range of 25 percent on the atmosphere (5).7Procedure Calculation with Sample ExampleThe solar radiation measurements used in Taif city are dependent on NASA’s official data from Taif(7). Using an Excel spreadsheet with different calculations, the net savings from using Solar areestimated. Those measurements are based on spatial knowledge and include information on theposition of the light. Longitude and tilt values are below the (represented as) and above. Additionally,the latitudinal and longitudinal values are described below. This report does so many calculationsusing simple equations that include variables that were not mentioned above, which are also defined.These features affect the effect of how much solar radiation hits a chosen surface.Latitude (รธ)21.2490NLongitude40.42550ESurface azimuth angle (ฦด)0oTilt angle (ฮฒ)36.290Current OffsetG.M.T+3 hoursTable1.Basic Parameters based on NASA Location [1]3. MethodologyMajor essential parameters using fundamental equations are calculated and shown below.3.1. Angle of Declination (ฮด )It is known as the sun’s angular inclination from the plane to the equator of the earth.๐œน = ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ‘. ๐Ÿ’๐Ÿ“๐’™ ๐’”๐’Š๐’ [(๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ”๐ŸŽ ๐’™ (๐’ + ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ–๐Ÿ’)]๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ“โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ (๐Ÿ)Where n is the day number in a month for a yearIn our assessment, we have taken June 15th as a reference for the calculation8๐‘› = 31 + 28 + 31 + 30 + 31 + 20 = 171Therefore, equation (1) becomes ๐›ฟ = 23.45 ๐‘ ๐‘–๐‘› [360๐‘ฅ(171+284)] = 23.4403653.2. Calculation of Sunset Hour Angle (ฯ‰s)๐Ž๐’” = ๐’„๐’๐’” โˆ’ ๐Ÿ(โˆ’๐’•๐’‚๐’ ๐‹ ๐’™ ๐’•๐’‚๐’ ๐œน) โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ . . (๐Ÿ)where ๐›ฟ is the declination angle and ๐œ‘ is the latitude of the chosen location.For Taโ€™if location ๐œ‘ = 21.2948 ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘‘ ๐›ฟ = 23.440Therefore, equation (2) ๐‘๐‘’๐‘๐‘œ๐‘š๐‘’๐‘  ๐œ”๐‘  = ๐‘๐‘œ๐‘  โˆ’ 1(โˆ’๐‘ก๐‘Ž๐‘› ๐œ‘ ๐‘ฅ ๐‘ก๐‘Ž๐‘› ๐›ฟ)= ๐‘๐‘œ๐‘  โˆ’ 1((โˆ’๐‘ก๐‘Ž๐‘› 21.2948 ๐‘ฅ ๐‘ก๐‘Ž๐‘› 23.44)) = 99.729 โ‰ˆ 99.733.3. Calculation of Sunshine Hours (N)๐‘ต=๐Ÿ๐’„๐’๐’” โˆ’ ๐Ÿ(โˆ’๐’•๐’‚๐’ ๐‹ ๐’™ ๐’•๐’‚๐’ ๐œน) โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ . . (๐Ÿ‘)๐Ÿ๐Ÿ“๐‘ต=๐Ÿ๐’™ ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ—. ๐Ÿ•๐Ÿ‘ = ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ‘. ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ• โ‰ˆ ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ‘. ๐Ÿ‘๐ŸŽ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ“Based on our site assumptions, we would have 13.30 hours during June 15th, which is considered ashighest sunshine hours in the city of Taโ€™if, Saudi Arabia.Sunrise Hour = ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ โˆ’Sunset Hour = ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ +๐‘ต= 12 โˆ’๐Ÿ๐‘ต๐Ÿ= 12 +13.30213.302= 5.35 ๐‘Ž. ๐‘š.= 18.65 ๐‘. ๐‘š. = 7.05 ๐‘. ๐‘š.3.4. Calculation of Solar Time:They vary from watch time hours, and they are focused on the location of the sun on top of the sky.Every 24 hours, it rotates owing to the earth’s movement.๐‘บ๐’๐’๐’‚๐’“ ๐‘ป๐’Š๐’Ž๐’† = ๐‘พ๐’‚๐’•๐’„๐’‰ ๐‘ป๐’Š๐’Ž๐’† + ๐‘ฌ๐‘ถ๐‘ป โˆ’ ๐œŸ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ (๐Ÿ’)9The sign of ฮ” depends on location East or West of GreenwichWhere , ๐‘ฌ๐‘ถ๐‘ป ๐’Š๐’” ๐‘ฌ๐’’๐’–๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’ ๐’๐’‡ ๐‘ป๐’Š๐’Ž๐’† = ๐Ÿ—. ๐Ÿ–๐Ÿ• ๐’™ ๐‘บ๐’Š๐’(๐Ÿ๐‘ฉ) โˆ’ ๐Ÿ•. ๐Ÿ“๐Ÿ‘ ๐’™ ๐‘ช๐’๐’”(๐‘ฉ)๐‘ฉ==๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ”๐ŸŽ๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ’(๐’ โˆ’ ๐Ÿ–๐Ÿ) โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ (๐Ÿ“)๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ”๐ŸŽ(๐Ÿ๐Ÿ•๐Ÿ โˆ’ ๐Ÿ–๐Ÿ) = 89.0109 โ‰ˆ 89.011๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ’๐‘ฌ๐‘ถ๐‘ป = ๐Ÿ—. ๐Ÿ–๐Ÿ•๐’™๐‘บ๐’Š๐’(๐Ÿ๐‘ฉ) โˆ’ ๐Ÿ•. ๐Ÿ“๐Ÿ‘๐’™๐‘ช๐’๐’”(๐‘ฉ) โˆ’ ๐Ÿ. ๐Ÿ“๐’™๐‘บ๐’Š๐’(๐‘ฉ) โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ (๐Ÿ”)= 9.87๐‘ฅ๐‘†๐‘–๐‘›(2๐‘ฅ89.011) โˆ’ 7.53๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘ (89.011) โˆ’ 1.5๐‘†๐‘–๐‘›(89.011) = โˆ’1.289 ๐‘š๐‘–๐‘›๐‘ข๐‘ก๐‘’๐‘ ฮ” is the difference between the standard and the local meridian.๐œŸ = ๐Ÿ’(๐‘ณ๐’”๐’• โˆ’ ๐‘ณ๐‘ณ๐ŸŽ โˆ’) โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ (๐Ÿ•)๐œŸ = 4(3๐‘ฅ15 โˆ’ 40.4255) = 18.298 ๐‘š๐‘–๐‘›๐‘ข๐‘ก๐‘’๐‘ Since our location is East of Greenwich๐›ฅ = โˆ’18.29 ๐‘š๐‘–๐‘›๐‘ข๐‘ก๐‘’๐‘ Substitute the Values of EOT, B, and ฮ” in equation (4). We getSo the correction to the standard ๐‘ก๐‘–๐‘š๐‘’ = ๐œŸ + ๐‘ฌ๐‘ถ๐‘ป = โˆ’18.298 + (โˆ’1.289) = โˆ’19.587 ๐‘š๐‘–๐‘›๐‘ข๐‘ก๐‘’๐‘ =โˆ’19.587= โˆ’0.3264 ๐ป๐‘œ๐‘ข๐‘Ÿ60Thus, the solar time in the Taโ€™if city on June 15th at 9.00 a.m=9.00-0.3264=8.6736=8:40:233.5. Incident angle calculation at the horizontal surface (ฮธ)Foremost, we calculate solar angle (ฯ‰) with the fundamental equation๐Ž = ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ“๐’™((๐Ÿ๐Ÿ โˆ’ ๐’•)) โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ (๐Ÿ–)Where t is the solar time in 24-hour format๐œ” = 15๐‘ฅ(12 โˆ’ 8.6736) = 49.896 โ‰ˆ 49.9003.6. The Basic definitions10Slope angle (ฮฒ) is known as the angle created between the surface’s planes and the horizontal. In ourassessment the surface is horizontal then ๐œท = 0ยฐ๐‘บ๐’–๐’“๐’‡๐’‚๐’„๐’† ๐’‚๐’›๐’Š๐’Ž๐’–๐’•๐’‰ ๐’‚๐’๐’ˆ๐’๐’† (๐œธ) is the variation of the projection on a normal horizontal plane to thesurface starting due south (east negative ).Zenith angle, (๐œƒ๐‘ง ) – the angle formed by the vertical ๐œƒ and the line pointing to the sun. Solar time isused to measure the angles.Figure 2: Basic angle differenceIn our calculations, the surface is horizontal; therefore Tilt angle(๐œท) = ๐ŸŽยฐHence ,the Angle of incidence (ฮธ) = Zenith angle(๐œฝ๐’› ).The incidence angle calculated using the basicformula.๐’„๐’๐’”๐œฝ = ๐’„๐’๐’”(๐œฝ๐’› ) = ๐‘บ๐’Š๐’ ๐œน ๐‘บ๐’Š๐’ะค + ๐‘ช๐’๐’”๐œน ๐‘ช๐’๐’”ะค ๐‘ช๐’๐’” ๐Ž โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ . (๐Ÿ—)๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘  ๐œƒ๐‘ = ๐‘†๐‘–๐‘›23.44 ๐‘ฅ ๐‘†๐‘–๐‘›21.2948 + ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘ 23.44 ๐‘ฅ ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘ 21.2948๐‘ฅ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘ 49.90 = 0.6950๐œƒ = ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘  โˆ’1 (0.6950) = 45.960By adjusting the incidence angle the maximum tracking can be obtained3.7. Calculating the Air Mass(AM)Air Mass shows the quantity of solar radiation that passes through the environment.1111== 1.439๐›‰๐‘ง0.6949๐ด๐‘€ =3.8. Solar Radiation Calculations based on Horizontal PlaneThe total solar radiation is calculated during the light day hours of each selected day (12). Radiationon a tilted surface (๐ป๐‘‡ ) is made up of three major components include direct, diffuse, and groundcomponents. Total radiation is summed as shown in the equation below.For the tilted surface ๐œท = ๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ”. ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐’ ๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐‘จ๐’›๐’Š๐’Ž๐’–๐’•๐’‰ ๐œธ = ๐ŸŽ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘ ๐œƒ ๐‘†๐‘–๐‘›๐›ฟ ๐‘†๐‘–๐‘›ะค ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘ ๐›ฝ โˆ’ ๐‘†๐‘–๐‘› ๐›ฟ ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘ ะค ๐‘†๐‘–๐‘›๐›ฝ ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘  ๐›พ + ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘  ๐›ฟ ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘ ะค ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘  ๐›ฝ ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘ ๐œ”+ ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘  ๐›ฟ ๐‘†๐‘–๐‘›ะค ๐‘†๐‘–๐‘›๐›ฝ ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘  ๐›พ ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘ ๐œ” + ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘ ๐›ฟ ๐‘†๐‘–๐‘›๐›ฝ ๐‘†๐‘–๐‘›๐›พ ๐‘†๐‘–๐‘›๐œ”๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘ ๐œƒ = ๐‘†๐‘–๐‘›23.44 ๐‘†๐‘–๐‘›21.2948 ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘  36.29 โˆ’ ๐‘†๐‘–๐‘› 23.44 ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘ 21.2948 ๐‘†๐‘–๐‘› 36.29 ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘  0+ ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘  23.44 ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘ 21.2948๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘  36.29๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘  49.90+ ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘  23.44 ๐‘†๐‘–๐‘›21.2948 ๐‘†๐‘–๐‘› 36.29 ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘  0 ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘  49.90+ ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘  23.44 ๐‘†๐‘–๐‘› 36.29๐‘†๐‘–๐‘› 0 ๐‘†๐‘–๐‘› 49.90 = 0.4676 โ‰ˆ 0.47The solar constant is taken from the NASA website (Gsc)=1367Wh/m2.Go = ๐‘ฎ๐’”๐’„ ๐’™[1+0.033 cos(๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ”๐ŸŽ๐’)๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ“๐บ๐‘œ = 1367๐‘ฅ [1 + 0.033 ๐‘๐‘œ๐‘ ] x Cos ๐œฝ๐’› โ€ฆโ€ฆโ€ฆโ€ฆโ€ฆโ€ฆโ€ฆโ€ฆโ€ฆโ€ฆ.(10)(360๐‘ฅ171)365] ๐‘ฅ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘  (45.96) =919.53๐‘Šโ„Ž๐‘š2๐ป๐‘œ = ๐บ๐‘œ๐‘ฅ ๐‘ก๐‘–๐‘š๐‘’ = 919.53๐‘ฅ 1 โ„Ž๐‘œ๐‘ข๐‘Ÿ = 919.53 ๐‘Šโ„Ž/๐‘š23.8.1. The Average Monthly daily solar radiation on a horizontal surface (H)12๐‘ฏ = ๐‘ฒ๐‘ป ๐‘ฏ๐ŸŽ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ (๐Ÿ๐Ÿ)H=0.66x 919.53=606.88 Wh/m2.The value of KT = 0.66 was taken from the NASA weather site location.๐‚๐จ๐ฌ๐›‰Rb = ๐‚๐จ๐ฌ ๐›‰๐™ =๐ŸŽ.๐Ÿ’๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ•๐Ÿ”๐ŸŽ.๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ“๐ŸŽ= 0.6723.8.2. Calculation of the diffuse component๐‘ฏ๐‘ซ (๐‘พ๐’‰) = (๐Ÿ. ๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ๐Ÿ โˆ’ ๐Ÿ‘. ๐ŸŽ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ๐‘ฒ๐‘ป + ๐Ÿ‘. ๐Ÿ’๐Ÿ๐Ÿ•๐‘ฒ๐‘ป๐Ÿ โˆ’ ๐Ÿ. ๐Ÿ–๐Ÿ๐Ÿ• ๐‘ฒ๐‘ป๐Ÿ‘ )๐‘ฏ๐’‚๐’—๐’ˆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ . (๐Ÿ๐Ÿ)๐’Ž๐ŸWhere ๐พ๐‘‡ is the clear sky index๐‘Šโ„Ž๐ป๐‘‘ ( ๐‘š2 ) = (1.311 โˆ’ 3.022 ๐‘ฅ 0.66 + 3.427 ๐‘ฅ 0.662 โˆ’ 1.827 ๐‘ฅ 0.663) ๐‘ฅ 606.88 =173.416๐‘Šโ„Ž/๐‘š23.8.3.Calculating the Beam component๐‘ฏ๐’ƒ = ๐‘ฏ โˆ’ ๐‘ฏ๐’…๐ป๐‘ = 606.88 โˆ’ 173.416 = 433.46 ๐‘Šโ„Ž/๐‘š23.8.4. Calculating the total solar Radiation (HT) for the tilt angle ๐œท = ๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ”. ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐ŸŽ๐‘ฏ๐‘ป = ๐‘น ๐’ƒ ๐‘ฏ๐’ƒ + ๐‘ฏ๐’…(๐Ÿ + ๐‘ช๐’๐’”๐œท)(๐Ÿ โˆ’ ๐‘ช๐’๐’”๐œท)+ ๐‘ฏ๐†๐’ˆโ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ โ€ฆ . (๐Ÿ๐Ÿ‘)๐Ÿ๐Ÿ๐‘ฏ๐‘ป = ๐ŸŽ. ๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ•๐Ÿ๐’™๐Ÿ’๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ‘. ๐Ÿ’๐Ÿ” + ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ•๐Ÿ‘. ๐Ÿ’๐Ÿ๐Ÿ” [(๐Ÿ+๐’„๐’๐’”๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ”.๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—)๐Ÿ๐ป๐‘‡ = 456.7 ๐‘Šโ„Ž/๐‘š213] + ๐Ÿ”๐ŸŽ๐Ÿ”. ๐Ÿ–๐Ÿ– ๐’™ ๐ŸŽ. ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ“ ๐’™ [(๐Ÿโˆ’๐’„๐’๐’”๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ”.๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—)๐Ÿ]From the above various Equations, the solar radiation based on an hourly basis is calculated andsummed up to get the overall solar radiation per day for each month (11). The model Calculation iscarried for the month of June 20th with the tilt angle ฮฒ=36.2904. ResultsIn the beginning, the calculations are made for the selected June month (20th). The major parameters,including solar declination, Azimuth angle, incidence angle, solar radiations for each month withdifferent tilt angles, are calculated using the Excel spreadsheet, and the results were compared withNASA for a satisfactory survey of our selected location (8). The Results obtained in this assessmentprovide satisfactory Values, and they are attached below.SunsetDayDeclinationNumberangleSunshinehourMonthangle(n)SunriseSunsetHoursHourshours(ฮด)(N)(แฟณs)January20-20.3481.6910.896.5517.45February51-11.5885.4211.396.3117.69March79-0.8189.6911.966.0217.98April11011.2394.4412.595.7018.30May14019.9398.1213.085.4618.54June17123.4499.7313.305.3518.65July20120.6498.4413.135.4418.56August23212.1094.7912.645.6818.32September2630.2090.0812.015.9918.0114October293-11.4085.4911.406.3017.70November324-20.2481.7410.906.5517.45December354-23.4580.2710.706.6517.35Table 2: Basic Solar Parameter Measurement in Taโ€™ifTable 3 shows the average values of the Ground reflectivity and Clearness Index retrieved from theNASA website.AverageAlbedoMonthClearness Index(Kt)(ฯ)January0.130.62February0.140.65March0.150.65April0.150.64May0.150.65June0.150.66July0.150.66August0.150.63September0.140.63October0.140.66November0.130.62December0.130.62Table 3: Monthly Ground reflectivity and Clearness index Values15The solar energy factor reflected from the earth to space is known as albedo. However, the graphbelow depicts the average Ground reflectivity values for each month of the year.Average Monthly Ground Reflectivity0.1550.150.1450.140.1350.130.1250.12JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecFigure 3: Monthly Ground Reflectivity of Taโ€™ifAverage Monthly Insolation ClearnessIndex (Kt)0.670.660.650.640.630.620.610.6JanFeb Mar Apr May JunJulAug Sep Oct Nov DecFigure 4: Monthly Average Insolation Clearness Index in Taโ€™if1630Declination angle comparison(ฮด)20100-10-20-30Figure 5: Comparison of Declination angle for Every 20th of Each MonthFigure 6: Clearness index with respect to clear sky model17Figure 7: Comparison of Sun height with Azimuth angle for each monthFigure 8: Comparison of monthly value ratios with clearness index[6]The assessment is shown below the analysis of solar profile for Taโ€™if city Saudi Arabia with optimumtilt angle on an annual, monthly, and daily basis (14). The total solar radiations for various Tilt Anglesare shown below.18Monthly Averaged Radiation Incident on different Tilted Surface (Wh/m2)ฮฒ = 0ยฐฮฒ = 6.29ยฐฮฒ = 21.29ยฐHTHT(Wh/m2)(Wh/m2)ฮฒ = 36.29ยฐฮฒ = 90ยฐMonthHT (Wh/m2)HTHT (Wh/m2)(Wh/m2)Jan43124852549358294400Feb52625873640965914387Mar62046504666864733262Apr67886792654959652087May71657013646556211617Jun72727096642754631588Jul72717062650156041581Aug67276639637657831994Sep60546250636461382989Oct60765917642365734274Nov48534942564060234649Dec44164847568662025111Average60336149625060223162Table 4: Overall Solar Radiation based on the 20th Day of each month with various tilt angles19Table 5: Overall Solar Radiation based on an hourly basis for each month based ontilt angle ๐›ƒ = ๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ”. ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—The above table shows the Overall Solar Radiation for each month for twenty-four hours a day.20Figure 9: Monthly Irradiation values obtained in PVSYSTMonthly Averaged Radiation Incident on different Tilted Surface (Wh/m2)ฮฒ = 0ยฐฮฒ = 6.29ยฐฮฒ = 21.29ยฐฮฒ = 36.29ยฐฮฒ = 90ยฐMonthCalculatNASCalculateNASCalculatNASCalculateNASCalculatNASedAdAedAdAedAJan4311.6248104852526054936050582964804399.984900Feb5262573058736120640967506591699043874660Mar6204670065046940666872206473708032623620Apr6788735067927410654972505965668020872230May7165801070137880646572705621635016171460Jun7272787070967680642769305463591015881420Jul7271766070627510650168605604593015811440Aug6727675066396750637664805783586019941840Sep6054656062506710636467906138650029892890Oct6076618059176540642370906573722042744450Nov485349804…

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