SOLUTION: University of the Cumberlands IT Management Reflection Paper

IT Manager’s Handbook
Third Edition
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IT Manager’s Handbook
Getting your new job done
Third Edition
Bill Holtsnider
Brian D. Jaffe
AMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG • LONDON
NEW YORK • OXFORD • PARIS • SAN DIEGO
SAN FRANCISCO • SINGAPORE • SYDNEY • TOKYO
Morgan Kaufmann is an imprint of Elsevier
Acquiring Editor: Andrea Dierna
Development Editor: Robyn Day
Project Manager: Jessica Vaughan
Designer: Joanne Blank
Morgan Kaufmann is an imprint of Elsevier
225 Wyman Street, Waltham, MA 02451, USA
# 2012 William Holtsnider & Brian D. Jaffe. Published by Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without
permission in writing from the publisher. Details on how to seek permission, further information about the
Publisher’s permissions policies and our arrangements with organizations such as the Copyright Clearance
Center and the Copyright Licensing Agency, can be found at our website: www.elsevier.com/permissions.
This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher (other
than as may be noted herein).
Notices
Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden
our understanding, changes in research methods or professional practices, may become necessary. Practitioners
and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any
information or methods described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their
own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility.
To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors, assume any liability
for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or
from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Holtsnider, Bill, 1956It manager’s handbook : getting your new job done / Bill Holtsnider, Brian D. Jaffe. – 3rd ed.
p. cm.
Summary: “This book provides a practical reference that you will return to again and again in an everchanging corporate environment where the demands on IT continue to increase. Make your first 100 days really
count with the fundamental principles and core concepts critical to your success as a new IT Manager outlined
in this valuable resource. The book also discusses how to work with your customers, manage your budget,
develop an overall IT strategy and demonstrate the value of IT to the company”– Provided by publisher.
ISBN 978-0-12-415949-5 (pbk.)
1. Industrial management–Data processing. 2. Management information systems. I. Jaffe, Brian D. II. Title.
HD30.2.H657 2012
004.068–dc23
2011044174
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
ISBN: 978-0-12-415949-5
Printed in the United States of America
12 13 14 15 16
10 9 8 7 6 5
4 3 2
1
For information on all MK publications visit our website at www.mkp.com
For M & D
—B.H.
For Jenine
—B.D.J.
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About the Authors
Bill Holtsnider is an experienced writer, educator, and software professional with more than 27 years
of experience working in the computer industry. His IT expertise includes working in such diverse
areas as stock portfolio management, identity management, Web analytics, and software development. He is the author of six books and a wide range of technical and marketing documentation.
Brian D. Jaffe is an IT professional who has worked for several Fortune 500 companies including
Bristol-Myers Squibb, Time Warner, Philip Morris, and The Interpublic Group of Companies. Currently he is Senior Vice President for Global IT at McCann Worldgroup in New York City, one of
the country’s leading advertising agencies. His articles have appeared in Computerworld, InfoWorld,
eWeek, and The New York Times, and he is the editor of Thanksgiving Tales: True Stories of the
Holiday in America.
vii
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Brief Table of Contents
About the Authors vii
Key Changes for This Edition
Preface xxiii
xxi
CHAPTER 1 The Role of an IT Manager 1
CHAPTER 2 Managing Your IT Team 31
CHAPTER 3 Staffing Your IT Team 65
CHAPTER 4 Project Management 103
CHAPTER 5 Software, Operating Systems, and Enterprise Applications 135
CHAPTER 6 Managing the Money 161
CHAPTER 7 Getting Started with the Technical Environment 189
CHAPTER 8 Security and Compliance 205
CHAPTER 9 Disaster Recovery 247
CHAPTER 10 Working with Users 263
CHAPTER 11 Connectivity: Social Media, Handhelds, and More 287
Glossary 305
Index 317
ix
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Contents
About the Authors ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. vii
Brief Table of Contents ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ix
Key Changes for This Edition……………………………………………………………………………………………… xxi
Preface ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. xxiii
CHAPTER 1 The Role of an IT Manager……………………………………………………………………. 1
1.1 Just What Does an IT Manager Do? ……………………………………………………………….. 2
Why All That Change and Flexibility Is Good…………………………………………………. 2
Why All That Change and Flexibility Is Bad …………………………………………………… 2
1.2 Managers in General……………………………………………………………………………………… 3
Definition of a Manager ………………………………………………………………………………… 3
Styles of Management …………………………………………………………………………………… 3
Pros and Cons of Being a Manager: Reasons to Become a Manager, and
Reasons Not to Become One………………………………………………………………………….. 5
The Hidden Work of Management………………………………………………………………….. 6
Resentment toward Management ……………………………………………………………………. 7
Babysitting versus Managing …………………………………………………………………………. 7
Politics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
Managing in Four Directions………………………………………………………………………….. 7
1.3 The Strategic Value of the IT Department ………………………………………………………. 8
Application Development versus Technical Operations…………………………………….. 9
IT Department Goals …………………………………………………………………………………… 10
The Value of IT Managers …………………………………………………………………………… 10
1.4 Developing an IT Strategy …………………………………………………………………………… 10
Determine Who Your Team Members Are…………………………………………………….. 11
Determine How Important Technology Is to Your Organization ……………………… 11
Determine Who Your Customers Are and What Their Needs Are……………………. 12
Keep Your Department Central to the Company’s Operations…………………………. 12
1.5 Leadership versus Management ……………………………………………………………………. 13
1.6 Starting Your New Job ………………………………………………………………………………… 14
The First Day ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 14
Meeting the Staff ………………………………………………………………………………………… 14
A Few Ideas for What to Say to Break the Ice……………………………………………….. 15
Some Don’ts……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
One-on-One Meetings………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
What to Say to Those Who Wanted Your Job and Didn’t Get It ……………………… 16
Establish a Relationship with Your Manager and Your Peers ………………………….. 17
Learning the Landscape: Key Users and Key Applications ……………………………… 18
xi
xii
Contents
1.7 The First 100 Days ……………………………………………………………………………………… 20
No Organization Is Perfect …………………………………………………………………………… 20
Quietly Advertising What You Bring to the Table …………………………………………. 21
Projects in Progress and Projects on the Horizon……………………………………………. 22
Is the Status Quo Good Enough? ………………………………………………………………….. 23
People to Meet and Know ……………………………………………………………………………. 24
Quick Introductory Meetings………………………………………………………………………… 24
Human Resource Issues ……………………………………………………………………………….. 25
Budgeting …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 26
Making Those First Decisions………………………………………………………………………. 26
1.8 Two IT Departments—What Happens If Your Company Merges
with Another?……………………………………………………………………………………………… 27
CHAPTER 2 Managing Your IT Team……………………………………………………………………… 31
2.1 Keeping Employees Focused………………………………………………………………………… 32
Establish Priorities ………………………………………………………………………………………. 32
Communicate with Your Team …………………………………………………………………….. 32
Company Mission, Vision, and Values ………………………………………………………….. 34
Be as Clear as Possible about Your Real Priorities…………………………………………. 35
Avoid Burnout in Your Employees……………………………………………………………….. 35
Make Your Employees Aware of the Dangers of Burnout ………………………………. 36
Deal with the Situation ………………………………………………………………………………… 36
Managing Remote Workers (or Teleworkers) ………………………………………………… 37
2.2 Employee Training ……………………………………………………………………………………… 39
Cost …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 39
Need ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 39
Scheduling Demands …………………………………………………………………………………… 40
Employee Morale………………………………………………………………………………………… 40
How Do You Know When Your Employees Need Training? ………………………….. 40
Certification ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 41
What If the Employee Takes a Training Class and Then Uses His New-Found
Skills to Find Another Job? ………………………………………………………………………….. 41
Nontechnical Training …………………………………………………………………………………. 42
Maximizing the Value of Training………………………………………………………………… 42
2.3 Employee Performance………………………………………………………………………………… 43
Performance Reviews ………………………………………………………………………………….. 43
Key Areas of Evaluation ……………………………………………………………………………… 44
Specific Evaluation Statements …………………………………………………………………….. 47
Guidelines for Reviews………………………………………………………………………………… 48
Negative Reviews ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 49
Have Employees Review Themselves …………………………………………………………… 50
360 Reviews……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 51
Contents
xiii
How to Conduct the Actual Review Discussion……………………………………………… 52
Development Plans and Goals………………………………………………………………………. 52
Salary Review …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53
Disciplinary Problems and Terminations ……………………………………………………….. 54
2.4 Generational Issues at Work…………………………………………………………………………. 57
Managing across Generations……………………………………………………………………….. 58
CHAPTER 3 Staffing Your IT Team ………………………………………………………………………… 65
3.1 Why IT Managers Need to Deal with Hiring People ………………………………………. 65
Human Resources Department’s Role …………………………………………………………… 66
Justifying a Hire………………………………………………………………………………………….. 67
Start with Internal and External Referrals ……………………………………………………… 68
Internal versus External Hires ………………………………………………………………………. 68
Should You Hire a Full-Time Employee or a Consultant? ………………………………. 70
3.2 Write a Position Description ………………………………………………………………………… 74
Position Descriptions versus Contracts ………………………………………………………….. 75
General Requirements………………………………………………………………………………….. 75
Advertising Options …………………………………………………………………………………….. 77
3.3 Recruiters …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 79
Finding the Right Recruiter ………………………………………………………………………….. 81
3.4 Selecting Candidates……………………………………………………………………………………. 83
Reviewing Résumés…………………………………………………………………………………….. 83
Telephone Screening……………………………………………………………………………………. 84
At What Level Should I Interview? ………………………………………………………………. 84
Narrowing Down the List …………………………………………………………………………….. 84
General Interview Guidelines ……………………………………………………………………….. 86
Prepare a List of Questions ………………………………………………………………………….. 87
Who Else Should Interview a Candidate? ……………………………………………………… 88
Key Concepts for a Good Technical Interview ………………………………………………. 89
Rank Criteria………………………………………………………………………………………………. 93
The Value of Certification……………………………………………………………………………. 94
Education …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 95
Checking References …………………………………………………………………………………… 97
Common Hiring Mistakes…………………………………………………………………………….. 98
Offering the Correct Salary for an IT Position ……………………………………………….. 99
CHAPTER 4 Project Management ……………………………………………………………………….. 103
4.1 Projects and Project Management: A Quick Overview ………………………………….. 104
Different Kinds of Projects…………………………………………………………………………. 104
The Value of Project Management ……………………………………………………………… 104
Five Key Phases to a Project………………………………………………………………………. 104
Do You Have to Be a Certified Project Manager to Run a Project? ……………….. 105
xiv
Contents
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
The Project Management Institute (PMI) …………………………………………………….. 105
A Project Management Office…………………………………………………………………….. 106
Phase One: Scope the Project……………………………………………………………………… 106
Clearly Define the Project’s Objective and Scope to Avoid Scope Creep ……….. 106
Department versus Company Objectives ……………………………………………………… 107
Get Proper Sponsorship for the Project………………………………………………………… 107
Identify the Stakeholders ……………………………………………………………………………. 108
Identify the Constraints, Interdependencies, and Risks ………………………………….. 109
The Project Charter……………………………………………………………………………………. 110
Get Historical Perspective ………………………………………………………………………….. 110
Phase Two: Develop a Project Plan …………………………………………………………….. 111
Three Critical Components to Any Project…………………………………………………… 111
Write the Project Plan with the Closeout Report in Mind …………… …
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